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PSY100H1 (1,804)
Chapter 5

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University of Toronto St. George
Le Boutillier, Janelle

GENETICS AND BEHAVIOR different phenotypic traits result from the interaction between alternative forms of a gene called allelesthere are three different alleles for blood type A B and O giving rise to four blood typesat a given site if someone has two identical alleles individual will be considered homozygous for genesIf a person has two different alleles such as gene for type A and gene for type O blood individual will be considered heterozygous for that generecessive vs dominant allele a dominant allele produces a phenotypical trait regardless of the homozygous and heterozygousnontypically you could have genes that are imprinted where only one allele is expressed and its identity depends on the parent that supplied the allele these genes have been implicated in number of genetic behavioural and cancer disorders From genes to proteins4 nucleic acids ATGC codons are group of 3 baseseach codon contains instruction for synthesis of 20 proteinswhat gives rise to the complexity of human genomethe fact that humans and other creatures differ greatly in terms of their expression of genes in brain it is much higherwhereas our rate of expression in liver is same as those of chimpanzeesproteome also contribute to this complexity which is the set of proteins encoded and expressed by genome Sources of Genetic Diversitymeiosis is the process through which egg and sperm are formed and dividedduring this process parental chromosome pairs are divided in half leaving only one chromosome from each pair in egg or sperm cellwhen the egg and sperm from two parents combine the resulting zygote once again contains the full complement of 23 pair of chromosomebasically meiosis results in two reproductive cells each containing one set of 23 chromosomes some genes are physically located close to one another and they could be passed on as a group through process known as linkagehowever chromosomes linking up prior to meiosis physically cross each other and exchange equivalent sections of genetic material resulting in combination of genes not seen in either parentmutationsreplication errors
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