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Chapter 2 Research MethodologyScientific InquiryEmpirical questions can be answered by observing and measuring the world around us can be proven TFserendipity Many significant findings are result of the unexpected stumbling upon something importantChance findings typically occur when some event happens was NOT part of original plan of studyoAn objective examination of the natural world has FOUR goalswhat happens descriptionwhen it happens predictionwhat causes it to happen causal controlwhy it happens explanationEmpirical Process1Theory idea or model of how something works2Hypothesisspecific prediction of what should be observed if the theory is correct3Research involves systemic and careful collection of data objective info to examine or test Jean PiagetInfant childdevelopmentTheory cognitive development occurs in a fixed series of stages from birth to adolescenceOne test children of different ages compare volume of equal amounts of liquid in differentsized glassesFound responses consistent within an age group Only children at certain agestage able to see all equalStudies in psycho science have SUBSEQUENTLY show some aspects of this theory were WRONG Types of studies in psychological researchChoose design 1 experimental 2 correlational 3 descriptiveDiffer in extent of control over variables therefore over in extent to which the research can make conclusions about causationVariables something you either measure or manipulateOperational definitions quantification of a variable that allows it to be measuredExperiment a study that tests causal hypothese by measuring and manipulating variablesConditions of an experimentIndependent variable what is manipulatedDependent variable what is measuredCONDITIONS refers to the different levels of the independent variable BENEFIT of experiments can study causal relationship between TWO variablesIf independent variable proves to influence dependent variable assume to be cause of change in dependent variableCrucial issue whether it is desirable to show a causal relationship between two variables Confound anything that affects a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary between the different experimental conditions of a studyRandom assignment placing participants to conditions of an experiment in which each participants has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the dependent variableControlling confoundsTo minimize possibility of anything other than the independent variable having affect rule of alternative explanations change nothing but the independent variableSelection BiasOccurs when participates differ between conditions in unexpected ways
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