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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Learning and Reward - Learning is a relatively enduring change in behaviour that results from experience o When an organism benefits from an experience, so that the future behaviour is better adapted o Ability to learn is crucial - Essence of learning is understanding how events are related o Conditioning is when the environmental stimuli and behavioural response become connected Classical conditioning occurs when we learn that two types of events go together Walking in the rain + getting wet Operant conditioning occurs when we learn that a particular behaviour leads to particular outcome Studying + better grades How did the behavioural study of learning develop? - Watson: overt behaviour is the only way to study mental processes - Behaviorism: humans and animals are born as a blank slate able to learn anything - The environment and its associated effects on an organism were the sole determinants of learning 1. Behavioural responses are conditioned - Salivary reflex: unlearned response that occurs when the stimulus of food is presented to an animal - Pavlov realized that dogs salivated before they tasted or saw food, the dogs began salivating when the technician walked into the room or when the dogs saw the bowls that usually had food in them - Behavioural response as the window to the working mind - Salivation at the sight of bowl is not an inborn reflex, therefore must have been learned a. Pavlovs experiments www.notesolution.com- Natural stimuli, unrelated to salivation (ringing of the bell) is presented together with the stimulus, to produce the reflex - Conditioning trial repeating the neutral stimulus + stimulus for effect - Critical trial the presentation of the neutral stimulus with out the stimulus and the effect is measured o Neutral stimulus can alone produce the effect - Classical conditioning is a type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produced that response - Unconditioned response or UR is a response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex o Example salivation at the sight of actual food - Unconditioned stimulus or US is a stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning o Food is an US because in a nature food would elicit the response of salivation - Conditioned stimulus or CS is a stimulus that elicit a learned response o Ringing bell > salivation - Conditioned response - a response that has been learned o Salivation after hearing the bell o Learned response - Even though both the UR and CR are salivation they are no identical, the CS (bell) produces less response b. Acquisition, extinction and spontaneous recovery - Pavlov: conditioning is the basis of all human learning - How animals learn to adapt to their environments - Learning to predict which behaviour brings pleasure and avoiding behaviours that bring pain - Acquisition is the gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli www.notesolution.com
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