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Chapter 5

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CHAPTER 5 SENSATION PERCEPTION AND ATTENTIONSensationHow our sense organs respond to external stimuli and transmit responses to brainDETECTIONPerceptionProcessing of detected sensory signals that result in internal representation of stimulusCONSTRUCTION of useful info about environmentBased on PRIOR EXPERIENCE shapes our expectation during identification of sensory experience What we see or hear is the result of brain processes that actively construct perceptual experienceHow do we sense our world convert physical energy into signals brain can understand ie nocturnal animals poor vision superb hearingSensory coding how sensory organs translate stimuluss physical properties into neural impulsesdiff features coded by DIFF patternsReceptors are specialized neuronstransduction sensory receptors produce neural impulses when receive physicalchemical stimulationoneural impulses interpreted as sight smell sound touch or tasteSensation transducted messages carried by nerve impulsesSensory coding Quantitative oIntensity brightness loudnessoIndexed by neural firing FREQUENCYoAlso more intense stimuli tend to recruit more neuronsQualitativeoColor tasteoDifferent sensory receptors respond to different qualities of a stimulusoIn most sensory systems EXCEPT sense of SMELL receptors provide coarse coding sensory qualities are coded by only a few receptors each responds to broad range of stimuli By comparing and integrating activity get final perceptPsychophysics examines PSYCHOLOGICAL experiences of PHYSICAL stimulitest limits of human sensory systemsThresholdAbsolute threshold minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before we can experience a sensation Difference threshold difference between two stimuli minimum amount of change required to detect a difference Webers law the size of a just noticeable difference is based on a relative proportion of difference rather than a fixed amount of differenceoEg exam score 610 vs 96100 percentage not absolute size is impopicking up oneounce letter vs twoounce easy to detect VS one pound package and one pound1 ounceClassical psychophysics based on idea of threshold either see smthg or nothad ignored important variable HUMAN JUDGEMENTabsolute threshold was WRONGSignaldetection theorydetecting a stimulus requires making a judgment about its presence or absence based on a SUBJECTIVE interpretation of AMBIGUIOUS infoothis is daily tasks of radiologist looking for early signs of cancer oknowledge of patients agesex affects judgment level of motivation and attentionInvolves series of trials in which stimulus is presented on some and not on others Research participant states whether they observed it or not Each trial ONE of FOUR outcomesosignal present observer detects it HITosignal present failed detect MISSosignal not present erroneous detection false alarmosignal not present no detection correct rejection
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