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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 - Psychological Disorders.pdf

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 14 Psychological DisordersHow Are Psychological disorders Conceptualized and ClassifiedIt is important to consider certain criteria in determining whether behaviour represents psychopathology 1 does the behaviour deviate from cultural norms 2 is the behaviour maladaptive 3 is the behaviour causing the individual personal distress The diagnostic criteria for all the major disorder categories stipulate that the symptoms of the disorder must interfere with at least one aspect of the persons life such as work social relations or self care This component is critical in determining whether a given behaviour or set of behaviours represents a mental disorder or is simply unusual Psychological disorders Are Classified into CategoriesEtiologyFactors that contribute to the development of a disorderMultiaxial systemThe system used in the DSM that provides assessment along five axes describing important mental health factors AssessmentExamination of a persons mental state to diagnose possible psychological disordersTo investigate etiology and treatments of mental disorders psychologists need to group these disorders into meaningful categories The idea of categorizing mental disorders systematically was adopted in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases in 1952 there are diagnoses that include evaluations on 5 dimensions or axes 1 clinical 2 mental retardation or personality disorders 3 medical conditions 4 psychosocial problems and 5 global or overall assessment of how well the person is functioning It allows for a more complete picture of the person than simply assigning a clinical category Method of initial assessment sometimes depends on how a person comes into contact with mental health workers Assessment does not stop with diagnosis as ongoing assessment helps mental health workers understand whether specific situations might cause a worsening of the disorder whether progress is being made in treatment and any other factors that might help in understanding unique aspects of a given case Structured versus unstructured interviewsMost interviews in modern psychology have ben unstructured to allow for different probes of aspects to arise The interview is guided by the clinicians past experiences aswell as by his or her observations of the client and the type of problems that are most likely They are highly flexible Structured interviews are standardized with questions asked in the same order each time The patients answers are coded according to a predetermined formula the diagnosis is based on the specific patterns of responding Most commonly used structured interview is the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM It is valuable for research and treatment because the results obtained from one group of patient swill likely apply to another diagnosed with the same disorder Types of TestingBehavioural often are useful for children A client who avoids eye contact during an assessments examination might suffer from social anxiety whereas when the eyes dart around nervously they may be paranoid Minnesota It has ten clinical scales that generate a profile indicating whether the client Multiphasic may have a particular mental disorder MMPI are used widely and most Personality clinicians do not diagnose until they have consistent results from psychological Inventory tests and structured interviewsNeuropsychologicClient performs actions such as copying a picture drawing a design from al testingmemory By highlighting actions that the client performs poorly the assessment might indicted problems with a particular brain regionPsychological Science Page 1
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