Psychology Test 1 Study Notes
- Psyche – soul
- Logos- to study
- Wilhelm Wundt came up with the term psychology. He combined the disciplines
of physiology and philosophy to form psychology.
Professional Practices of Psychology:
- Clinical- Treating patients with various psychological disorders
- Counseling- Treating issues such as family matters but without the use of
- Education- Professors teaching psychology
- Industrial Organization- consults with businesses who they should or should not
- Made psy a separate discipline from philosophy and physiology.
- Believed the primary focus of psychology should be the study of consciousness.
- Created the first university program in the name of psychology.
G. Stanley Hall:
- Launched US‟ first psy journal
- Drving force behind APA
- Established America‟s first research lab in psy.
- Founder: Edward Titchener
- Examine the structure of consciousness, the relationship between the basic
elements of consciousness
- Wanted to examine sensation, feelings and images.
- Depended on introspection, systematic observation of ones consciousness, to
examine these elements.
- Examine the purpose of consciousness.
- Founder- William James (or to say so)
- Inspired by Darwin‟s natural selection, figures that one‟s consciousness must
serve a purpose - Consciousness- “continues flow of thoughts”
- Examined and looked at human behaviour, etc.
- Studies observable behavior
- Founder: John B. Watson (Said psy should not be about consciousness)
- Mental processes = private events, cannot be studied using a scientific method
- Behavior = observable response of an activity by an organism
- Nature Vs. Nurture- Said nurture, downplayed heredity
- Investigated stimulus (input)- response relationship
- Increased animal research
- Opposed Watson‟s idea of behaviorism, and waned to continue with the study of
- Founder of psychoanalysis
- Behavior is influenced by unconsciousness
- Psychological problems rise from personal conflict at the unconscious level
- Psychoanalytic theory tried to explain mental disorders, personality and
motivation by focusing on unconsciousness.
- Supported behaviorism
- Did not like stimuli-response concept
- Believed environment moulds behavior
- Believed and showed that animals keep repeating responses with positive
- Free will is an illusion, people are controlled by their environment
- Unique qualities of humans- their freedoms + personal growth
- Concerned with everyday problems
- Concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
- Mental processes involved in obtaining knowledge, human behavior can‟t be
understood fully without knowing how humans think
- Superiority of one‟s own group over others and the standards of judging foreign
- Evolution of humans/animal behavior
- People think depending on the chemicals inside their body
UNIT 2 Lecture:
- Naturalistic Observations: Just observe the subject in their natural environment.
No controls over or manipulations to the subjects.
- Surveys: Prone to great error. Can be biased.
- Case Study: Studying an individual case or incidence, examination of only one
subject. Many times sample size is not big enough.
- Correlation: Looks at two variables and their effects on each other. Measures the
strength and direction of associations between two variables. Suffers from
problems of directionality and third confound variables, preventing researchers
from making any causal inferences.
- Experimental: Is a controlled study. Uses random assignment to control for all
variables except for the independent variable, which is manipulated by the
researcher. Random assignment allows for casual inferences to be made between
independent and dependent variables.
- Independent Variable: Two groups/ conditions. A group made felt anxious and the
one that was not.
- Dependent Variable: Number of words generated in the boggle task.
- Manipulation Check: The surveys/ questionnaires, people with „x‟ on their sheet
would have a higher score of anxiety.
Bias in Research:
- Sampling bias: When a sample is not representative of the population from which
it is drawn.
- Placebo effects: When a participant‟s expectations leads them to experience some
change even though they are given ineffectual treatment.
- Social desirability bias: Tendency to give socially approved answers about
- Response set: A tendency to respond to a question in a particular way, which is
unrelated to the content of the question.
- Experimenter bias: When a researcher‟s expectations or preferences about the
outcome of a study influence the results obtained. Double blind procedure is a
strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in
the experimental or controlled groups.
Lecture: Components of a Neuron:
- Dendrites: Receives information from other neurons
- Cell body: Creates transmitter molecules:
- Axon: Myelin sheath insulates the nerve cell and speeds up the conduction of
Terminal buttons of the axon release neurotransmitters
- Simulation of the nerve membrane opens up ion channels in the membrane
- Na ions flow in, depolarizing the membrane (-70 mV to say –60 mV)
- K ions flow out of the membrane, hyperpolarizing it (-70 mV to –90 mV)
- Created at the dendrites and conducted along the membrane to axon hillock
- If the simulation raises the membrane potential past a threshold level, action
potentials (AP) occur.
- Na flow in, depolarize the membrane up to +40 mV
- Restoration of the membrane occurs by opening up the K channels and restoring
the membrane potential to –70 mV.
- Conducted along the axon, toward the terminals
- Neurotransmitters stored in vesicles of the presynaptic cell and released in
response to an AP.
- Once released, neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind with
the receptors on the postsynaptic cell.
- Neuromodulators: Indirectly alter the activity of other transmitter substances
The Nervous System:
Autonomic Nervous System:
- Sympathetic- emergency (fight or flight response) - Parasympathetic- Vegetative Functions (ex. Digestion)
- The two systems often act in opposition (maintaining the heart rate)
- Can also act in concert (sexual reflexes)
Parts of the Brain:
- Medulla: Controls heart rate, respiration
- Cerebellum: Coordinates smooth movement, balance, posture
- Pons: Involved in the control of sleep
- Cerebral Cortex: Thinking Station, very big in humans, involved in imagination
(allows us to think about ourselves in a spiritual way, life after death)
- Thalamus: Relay station
- Hypothalamus: Responsible for four Fs: Feeding, feeling, fighting, mating
- Pituitary Gland: Puppet master gland
- Corpus Callosum: Connects two parts of the brain, filled with axons
How do humans differ from animals: humans have a big cerebral cortex,
and show respect for and bury our dead.
Limbic System Functions: (Emotion)
- Septal area is involved in pleasure and in relief from pain
- Amygdala is involved in learning and recognition of fear
- Hippocampus is involved in memory (creates a story out of the information).