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Chapter 1

Summary of All Definitions in Chapters 1,2,3,4,5,10,11,12

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

Glossary  Absolute Deprivation: belief that one’s resources are threatened by people in other groups  Accessibility: readily available information has the largest impact on us  Acculturation: change that happens when people have a different culture in context  Actor-Observer Effect: other’s behavior being dispositional, own behavior as situational (because we have access to our own thoughts).  Affective Forecasting: process of predicting impact of positive and negative events on mood (usually this is overestimated, when professors were asked how they would feel if they were denied tenure, they ended up feeling better than they expected)  Aggression: behavior intended to harm others who don’t want such treatment (must be intentional, harmful, and unwanted)  Anchoring and Adjustment: heuristic which relies on starting point and then adjusting from that point (negotiating price) leads to errors in perceiving the world.  Anonymity: people in the group are less responsible for actions  Appraisal: an interpretation of an event including both cause of event and effect on self  Arbitration: neutral 3 party studies both sides and comes up with a decision  Archival Research: approach that uses already recorded behavior  Assimilation: learn new culture and apply it (unidirectional)  Assimilation: tendency to abandon culture to participate in the larger society  Association claims: university students who get more sleep have higher self-esteem  Autostereotype: one stereotype that one holds against own group  Availability Heuristic: mental shortcut based on how easily it can be brought to mind  Aversive Prejudice: endorsement of unprejudiced beliefs whilst maintaining unconscious of negative attitudes towards group  Bargaining: agreement is sought through direct negotiation  Base-Rate Fallacy: error in which people ignore numerical frequency/base rate of an event to estimate probability (car crash vs plane crash) leads to errors in perceiving the world.  Behaviorism: science must be observed, and only behavior can be observed and recorded and so behaviorism focused on conditioning behavior through reward and punishment disregarding role of thought/emotion/attitudes.  Belief in a Just World: bad things happen to bad people, good things happen to good people  Belief Perseverance: maintaining and strengthening belief in face of disconfirming evidence.  Benevolent Sexism: positive but patronizing views of women  BIRG: basking in reflected glory (a self-serving comparison)  Catharsis: release of suppressed energy and emotion  Causal claims: contact with out-group members leads to reduction in prejudice (specific to experimental research)  Collectivistic Cultures: view of self as part of a larger network.  Common In-group Identity Model: reduction in prejudice is more likely when group members believe they have a shared identity.  Conservatism: established views are slow to change  Contagion: irrationality in a group setting is contagious  Content Free Schemas: rules about processing. If A=B, and B=C, then A=C.  Context Effects: context in which question is asked influences people (answers could be influenced by what participant thinks the researcher is after)  Contrast Effect: relative difference of intensity between 2 stimuli and their effect on each other ($50 purse Vs $200 purse on sale for $50) leads to errors in perceiving the world.  Correlational Research: a technique that examines the extent that two or more variables are associated. There are two types: observational/naturalistic and Self-report/survey  Correspondent Inferences: Jones and Davis theory concerning social perception. People infer whether a behavior is caused by internal disposition (influenced by choice of engaging, expectation of behavior, and intention)  Counter Factual Thinking: tendency to imagine alternative outcomes leads to errors in perceiving the world (Israeli soldiers not allowed to trade shifts).  Covert Measures: measures reliant on participants behavior or reaction not under their conscious control (example: implicit association test)  Cross-ethnic Identification Bias: they all look the same  Deindidividuation: tendency to not follow rules as a result of losing one’s self-awareness  Demand Characteristics: cues in research settings that guide participant’s behavior – priming participants  Dependent Variable: variable or factor which is measured and not manipulated in experiments  Descriptive norm: describing to others what normative behavior is (example: hotels encourage reusing towels by stating that that’s the normal social behavior)  Desensitization/Disinhibition: reduction of physiological reaction to stimuli due to repeated exposure  Discrimination: behavior directed against people solely because of their group membership  Displacement: transfer of aggression to something else when source is unavailable  Downward Comparison: compare self to those worse off to feel better about ourselves (this is a self-serving comparison) (bronze medalist comparing to those who didn’t get a medal)  Egotistic Relative Deprivation: feeling deprived by comparing one’s status with others.  Emotional/Hostile Aggression: inflicting harm for the sake of harming  Equal Status Contact: increased intergroup contact on a level playing field  Ethnocentrism: intergroup attribution of positive characteristics to own group and negative ones to out-groups  Event Schemas: scripts for well known situation  Experimental Methods: research approach that involves manipulation of 1 or more independent variables and measurement of 1 or more dependent variables  Experimenter Expectancy Effects: experimenter’s expectations affect participants (Example: students were told that their mice were super-brain vs slow-learning mice)  External Validity: degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that same results will be obtained if others conducted the experiment  Extrinsic Motivation: engaging in behavior for some external reason (for reward or to avoid punishment)  Facial-Feedback Hypothesis: changes in facial expression will change emotion (participants forced to smile with pencil when watching cartoons rated the shows as funnier)  False-Consensus Effect: tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people share our opinions, attitudes, and behavior (because we tent to surround ourselves with those of similar opinion and think our skills are normative)  False-uniqueness: tendency to underestimate the extent to which other people are likely to share our positive attitudes and behavior  Framing: tendency to be influenced by the way an issue is presented leading to errors in perceiving the world.  Fraternalistic Relative Deprivation: feeling deprived when comparing status of own group versus another  Frequency claims: 67% of people won’t read this  Freud’s Death Wish: people have a self-destructive tendency for aggression  Frustration-Aggression Theory: frustration leads to aggressive behavior  Fundamental Attribution Error/Correspondence Bias: tendency to overestimate role of personal causes and underestimate role of situational causes in explaining behavior  Gestalt Psychology: theory proposing that objects are viewed holistically when interpreting surroundings (we experience more than what is supplied through vision, for example, viewing images in rapid succession allows you to see the image move like in cartoons)  Graduated and Reciprocal Initiatives in Tension Reduction (GRIT): unilateral and persistant effors to establish trust and cooperation between opposing parties to resolve a problem (part #1 makes an invitation to reduce tension, makes a move to reduces it, and waits for party #2 to return the gesture)  Heterostereotype: stereotypes about other groups  High Self-Monitors: more likely to adjust behavior to project image of self they believe is desired by audience  Hindsight bias: tendency to see a given outcome as nevitable after it is known  Hostile Sexism: hostility towards women based on threat to men’s power  Hypothesis: an educated guess – a testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur  Ideal self: hopes, aspirations, wishes – focus on positive outcomes and how to achieve them (wanting a happy marriage)  Illusory Correlation: see a correlation between two events when there is no association between them (homosexuality and child molestation)  Illusory Superiority: unrealistic view of self as being better  Impression Management: strategies that people use to create positive impressions of themselves  Independent Self-Construal: Conception of self as autonomous independent from others, behaving to express own internal attributes  Independent Variable: variable manipulated in experimental research  Individualistic Cultures: view of self as a distinct autonomous individual endowed with unique attributes.  Ingratiation: strategy to appear more likeable (flatter and praise others)  In-Group Favoritism: tendency to evaluate in-group members more positively than out-group  Instrumental Aggression: inflicting harm to obtain something of value  Integration: tendency to maintain one\s own culture but participate in a larger society  Integrative solutions: negotiated resolution to conflict in which all parties obtain outcomes superior to what would have been obtained through equal division (win-win situations)  Interdependent Self-Construal: conception of self as connected to others with behavior contingent on values, thoughts, and preferences of others  Internal Validity: degree to which one can validly draw conclusions about the effects of the independent variable on the dependent one (absence of confounds, or third-variable problem)  Intrinsic Motivation: engaging in behavior for its own sake  Intu
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