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Chapter 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Kristie Dukewich

Chapter 2 Cognitive neuroscience- the study of the physiological basis of cognition. At the beginning the structure of the brain was viewed as a nerve net (signals could be transmitted throughout the net in all directions) because the staining techniques could not resolve small details at the time and so that’s what it appeared as. Golgi showed the structure of the neuron and then Cajal changed the revolution and showed that the cells were individual units called neurons and figure out that individual cells transmit signals in the nervous system. Parts of a neuron Cell body- keeps the cell alive Dendrites-recieves signals from other nueorns Axon- transmits signals to other neurons Synapse- small gap between the axon one neuron and the dendrite anther Neurons are connected to each other to form neural circuits Neurons that pick up information from the environment are receptors and have a cell body and axon and special receptors that pick up information from the environment. Adrian- recorde the action potentials and showed that action potential travles all the way without changing its size. A neurotransmitter is released from one end of the axon to the dendrite through the synaptic gap. Adrian discovered that the intensity of a stimulus can be represented by the rate of nerve firing. example, increasing the pressure to the skin causes neurons in the touch system to fire more rapidly, so more neurons fire rapidly in the visual system and therefore an increased perception of brightness. Localization of Function The cerebral cortex – layer of tissue that covers the brain First areas to receive signals from each of the senses 1) temporal lobe- receiving area for sound but on the underside is for task and smell 2) occipital lobe- receiving area for vision 3) parietal lobe- the area for the skin sense 4) frontal lobe receives signals from all of the senses and plays an important role in perception and a small area for smell and taste Prosopagnosia- inability to recognize faces as a result of damage to the areas in the temporal lobe. PET- measures blood flow to look at brain activity Subtraction technique- You take the control of an action and then manipulation condition and subtract the activation to get a measure of the activation. FMRI- measurement of blood flow, indicates brain activity by looking at how strong the hemoglobin responds to the magnetic field. Fusiform face area – area that responds to faces in the temperal lobe in the fusiform gyrus Parahippocampal place area – activated by pictures representing indoor and outdoor scenes Extrastriate body area- activated by pictures of bodies and parts of bodies Module- an area specialized for a specific function. The FFA, PPA,EBA are modules for perceiving faces, bodies, and places. Localization of language Broca found an area in the frontal lobe specialized for producing language called it Broca’s area and loosing speech was Broca’s aphasia. Damage to the temporal lobe is called Wernicke’s area and can not produce meaningful speech, the condition is called Wernicke’s aphasia. New research however shows that patients with Broca’s aphasia have problems with form as in if the sentence can be interpreted in two d
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