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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3: Anatomy of the Nervous System  Cells of the Nervous System  Neurons  Specialised for reception, conduction, and transmission of electrical signals  Cell body  Endoplasmic Reticulum  Folded membranes in the cell body  Rough areas help synthesise proteins  Smooth areas help synthesise fats  Cytoplasm  Clear internal fluid of the cell  Golgi complex  Connected system of membranes that packages molecules in vesicles  Mitochondria  Sites of aerobic (oxygen-consuming) energy release  Neuron cell membrane  Composed of a lipid bilayer  Channel proteins  Allow certain molecules to pass  Signal protein  Transfer a signal to the inside of the neuron according to which molecules bind to them on the outside  Types of neurons  Multipolar (most neurons)  Has more than two processes extending from its cell body  Unipolar neuron  Has one process extending from its body  Bipolar neuron  Has two processes extending from its body  Interneurons  Neurons with short or no axon body whose function is to integrate neural activity within a single brain structure, not to conduct signals from one structure to another  Neurons in neuroanatomical structure  In the CNS:  Clusters of cell bodies = nuclei  Bundles of axons = tracts  In the PNS:  Clusters of cell bodies = ganglia  Bundles of axons = nerves  Glial Cells  Ogliodendrocytes glial cells with extensions that wrap around axons of some neurons in the CNS  Constitutes one myelin segment  Schwann cells are like ogliodendrocytes but in the PNS  Constitutes many myelin segments, often with more than one axon  Unlike ogliodendrocytes, these can guide axonal regeneration after damage (regrowth). This is why effective regeneration in mammals is restricted to the PNS  Microglia  Smaller than glia  Respond to injury or disease by multiplying, engulfing cellular debris, and triggering inflammatory responses  Astrocytes  Largest glial cells and star-shaped  Cover blood vessels that course through the brain and make contact with cell bodies  Allow passage of some chemicals from the blood to the CNS and blocks others  Neuroanatomical Techniques  Staining  Golgi stain  Can see individual neurons  Silver invades neurons and turns them black  Can only see neurons in silhouette though  Nissl Stain  Made it possible to see the number of neurons in an area and the nature of their inner structure  Usually cresyl violet dye is used  Electron microscopy  Tracing techniques  Anterograde (forward)  Shows cell bodies projecting away from a certain area  Retrograde (backward)  Shows cell bodies projecting towards a certain area  Spinal Cord (cross-section)  Gray matter  Inner H-shaped core of the spinal cord  Composed mostly of cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons  White matter  Outer area of the spinal cord  Composed mostly of myelinated axons  Dorsal horns  Dorsal arms of the spinal gray matter  Ventral horns  Ventral arms of the gray matter  Spinal nerves are attached to the cord on either side (left and right) at 31 levels of the spine  Each of the 62 spinal nerves divide as it nears the cord and its axons are joined to the cord by the ventral or dorsal roots  Dorsal root  All dorsal root axons (somatic and autonomic both) are sensory (afferent) unipolar neurons  The cell bodies are grouped together right outside the cord to form root ganglia  Ventral root  Motor (efferent) multipolar neurons with their cell bodies in the ventral horns  Those that project to the skeletal muscles and are part of the somatic nervous system  Those that are part of the autonomic nervous system project in the ganglia where they synapse onto neurons that project to the internal organs  Five Major Divisions of the Brain  In development:  There is a fluid-filled tube that starts to have 3 swellings  These turn into the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain eventually  Then this turns into 5 swellings when the forebrain and hindbrain each turn into two swellings  The last four are often collectively called the “brain stem”  From front (anterior) to back (posterior), the swelling become [encephalon = in the head]:  Telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres)  Largest division of the brain and conducts the most complex brain functions  Initiates voluntary movement, interprets sensory input, and mediates complex cognitive processes (learning, speaking, problem-solving)  Cerebral Cortex  Tissue layer covering the hemispheres  Mostly made of small, unmyelinated neurons, and therefore has a gray colour  Fissures – large furrows in the cortex; Sulci – small furrows; Gyri – ridges between them  The largest fissure separates the hemispheres: longitudinal fissure and the hemispheres are still partially connected by cerebral commissures, with the largest being the corpus collosum  Postcentral Gyrus  Analyzes sensation from the body, like touch  Superior Temporal Gyrus  Hearing and language  Inferior Temporal Cortex  Id’s complex visual patterns  Medial portion of the Temporal Cortex  Certain kinds of memory  Neocortex which has 6 layers and makes up 90% of human cerebral cortex  Has 2 types of cortical neurons  Pyramidal Cells: Large, multipolar, a large dendrite called an apical dendrite that goes from the tip of the pyramid-shape to the cortex with a very long axon  Stellate Cells: Small, star-shaped interneurons  Has columnar organisation  Hippocampus [sea horse]  Not neocortex- it has only 3 major layers  Plays a role in certain types of memory, especially spatial location  The Limbic System and the Basal Ganglia  Limbic [ring] System  A circuit of midline structures that circle the thalamus  Regulates motivated behaviours (4 F’s – fleeing, feeding, fighting, fucking)  Includes:  Mammillary bodies  Hippocampus  Amygdala  Emotion, especially fear  Fornix  Cingulate cortex  Septum  Basal Ganglia  Amygdala Known together as the  Caudate [tail-like]  Putamen striatum [striped structure]  Globus Pallidus [pale globe]  Plays a role in voluntary motor response performance  Parkinson’s disease  Results from the deterioration of the pathway from the striatum to the midbrain’s substantia nigra  Nucleus accumbiens  Medial portion of the ventral striatum  Thought to play a role in the rewarding effects of addictive drugsa and reinforcers  Diencephalon  Has 2 structures  Thalamus rd  2-lobed structure that makes up the top of the brain stem with the 3 ventricle between the lobes  They are joined by the massa intermedia that runs through the ventricle  Has myelinated axons on its surface, giving it a white appearance  Nuclei in the thalamus  Sensory Relay Nuclei  Nuclei that receive signals from sensory receptors, processes them, and transmits them to their respective areas  Hypothalamus  Below the anterior thalamus  Regulates eating, sleeping, sexual behaviours and regulates hormones from the pituitary gland [snot gland]  Structures in the hypothalamus  Optic Chiasm  Where the optic nerves from each eye meet  Mammillary Bodies  Pituitary Gland  Mesencephalon (midbrain)  Has two divisions  Tectum  On the dorsal surface of the midbrain  Made of two pairs of small colliculi (bumps, “little hills”)  Posterior bumps: inferior colloculi  Auditory function  Anterior bumps: superior colloculi  Visual function  Tegmentum (has part of the reticular formation)  Ventral to the Tectum  Has 3 colourful structures  The periaqueductual gray  The gray matter situated around the c
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