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Chapter 10

psy aging - chapter 10 .odt

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Gillian Rowe

Chapter 10- Personality Levels of analysis and personality research McAdams describes three parallel levels of personailty structure and function 1. dispositional traits: are aspect of personality that are consistent across different context and can be compared across a group along a continuum. - it includes descriptors such as shy, talkative and authoritarian 2. Personal concerns: consist of things that are important to people, their goals and their major concerns in life. - describes in motivational, developmental or strategic terms; they reflect the stage of life a person is in at the times. 3. Life narrative: consist of the aspect of personality that pull everything together, the integrative aspects that give a person an identity or sens of self - the creation of an identity is the goal of this level Dispositional Traits across adulthood Three assumptions are made about traits 1. traits are based on comparison of people because there are no absolute quantitative standards for concepts such as friendliness 2. the qualities or behaviours making up particular trait mus be distinctive enough to avoid confusion e.g. If friendliness and aggressiveness had many behaviours in common 3. traits attributed to a specific person are assumed to be stable characteristics • when we think a person is friendly we think they are friendly in most situations • trait: trait is any distinguishable enduring way i which one person differs from others - little changes are made throughout adulthood – stated from trait theories The case of stability: the five-factor model • Five factor model consist of five independent dimensions of personality: neuroticism, extroverision, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness Neuroticism • six facet of neuroticism” anxiety, hostilit, self-conscousness, depression, impulsiveness, and vulnerability • anxiety and hostility form underlying traits for two fundamental emotions: fear and anger • the frequency and intensity in which they are felt varies from one person to another • people high in trait anxiety are nervous, high strung, tense, worried and pessimistic • prone to anger, hostile people are irritable and ten to be hard to get along wit • traits of self-consciousness and depression relate to the emotions shame and sorrow • being self consciousness is associated with being sensitive to criticism and teasing and to feelings of inferiority • impulsiveness and vulnerability is manifested in behaviours than emotions • impulsiveness is the tendency to give in temptation and esires because of alack of will power and self-control - do things excess, overeating and over spending – more likely to smoke and do drugs • Vulnerability is lowered ability to deal effectively with stress - tend to panic in a crisis or emergency and to be highly dependent on other to help • those high in neuroticism is high with the 6 facets • high neuroticism tend to be violent and negative emotions Extroversion • six facets can be grouped into • three interpersonal traits (warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness ) • three temperamental traits ( activity, excitement seeking and positive emotions) • warmth or attachment is friendly, compassionate, intimately, involved style of interacting with other people • warm and gregariousness (desire to be with other people) make up what is sometimes called sociability. • Gregarious people thrive on crowds; the more social interaction, the better • assertive people makes natural leaders and take charge and make up their own mind • temperamentally extroverts like to be keep busy; they are the people and want to be on the go – exciting lifestyles • relates to occupational interest and values - tend to have people oriented jobs such as social work, business administration and sales • people low in extroversion tend to prefer task oriented job such as architecture or accounting Openness to experience • six facet- theres six areas 1. area of fantasy, openness includes having a vivid imagination and active dream life 2. aesthetic openness is seen in the appreciation of act and beauty, sensitivity to pure experience for its own sake 3. openness to action is a willingness to try something new, whether it is a new kind of cuisine, a new movies or a new travel destination 4. people who are open to ideas and values are curious ad value knowledge for the sake of knowing • open minded in their values, often admitting that what may be right for an person may not be right for everyone • they experience their own feelings strongly and see them as major source of meaning in life • occupational values – thinking theoretically or philosophically and less emphasis on economic values • they are intelligent and tend to subject themselves to stressful situations • psychologist and minster are appealing to open people Agreeableness • antagonisitic people tend to set themselves against other; they are skeptical , mistrustful, unsympathetic, stubborn, and rude and have a defective sense of attachment • they are skillful manipulators or aggressive go getters with little patients • scoring high on agreeableness is the opposite of antagonism • they tend to be dependent and self effacing – traits annoying to others Conscientiousness • one is hard working, ambitious, energetic, scrupulous and persevering • people opposite are negligent, lazy, disorganized, late, aimless and lacking in persistence What is the evidence for trait stability? Underlying personality does not change much Critiques of the five factor model • Costa and McCrae modified their original “no change “ position • The five trait do change over a 30 to 40 period • Block's criticism are based on perceived methodological problems - such as the way the dimension were identified statistically and the way the questionnaire assessment was developed and used - it also need to take into consideration the sociocultural context of personality developemnt occurs and variability across the life course McAda raises additional limitations of the five factor model 1. dispostional traits says nothing about the core or essential aspects of human naure 2. “” cannot provide enough information about people so that accurate predictions can be made about how they wilbehave ina particular situations 3. the assessment of dispositional traits fails to provide compelling explanantions of why people behave the way they do 4. “” are seen as independent of the context in which the person operates – five factor model ignores sociocultural context of human development 5. the assessment of “” reduce a person to a set of score on a series of linear continua anchored by terms that are assumed to be bother meaningful and opposite 6. the assessment of “” through questionnaires assume that the respondent is able to take an objective, evaluative stance about his or her personal characteristics He view is that the five factor should not be viewed as reflecting one's entire personality • HLM method: create a growth curve for each individual in a study and pieces the curve together to create an overall age trend - reduces measurement error and allow the full use of even incomplete data for each per
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