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PSY341H1 (32)
Chapter 8

psy341 - chapter 8 mood disorders.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Ross Hetherington

Chapter 8 Mood Disordersdysphoriastate of prolonged bouts of sadnessanhedoniano interest in any activitiesirritability is commonDSMIVTR two general categories depressive disorders and bipolar disordersDepressionHistorypreviously believed that depression didnt exist in childrenopsychoanalytic theories depression result of hostility or anger turned inward usually caused by actualperceived lossochildren lack sufficient superego development to permit aggression to be directed against selfconsidered normal and passing in certain stages of developmentthen came popular idea that any form of clinical symptom in children was a result of masked depressionowe now know that it is not masked just overlookedDepression in Young People5 children 1020 adolescentsRecovery often results in recurrent bouts and continued impairmentHeightened risk of suicide substance abuse etcDevelopmentno pattern fits all children manifests differently at different stagesonly when children older is clearly recognizable as a clinical disorder by DSMohowever recent studies say as young as 35 yearsinfants anaclitic depressioninfants raised in a clean but emotionally cold institution displayed reactions that resembled depressionweeping withdrawal apathy weight loss sleep disturbance overall decline in development death in some casesoSpitz absence of mothering lack of attachment etcoSame seen in noninstitutionalized infants with detached psychologically unavailable motherspreschoolers somber and tearfullack enthusiasm bounce etcoexcessive clingingowhining behaviourofear of separationonegative selfdestructive verbalizationophysical complaintsschoolageosame as preschoolers but with increasing irritability disruptive behaviour temper tantrums and combativenessosuicide threats
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