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CH14 Metamemory.docx

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Kristie Dukewich

CH 14 Metamemory Metamemory = awareness of one’s own memory Part 1: Properties & Theories 1. Metcalfe: Cue Familiarity Hypothesis i. The more familiar the cue is, the more likely people will judge that the knowledge is in memory 2. Koriat: Accessibility Hypothesis i. More Amount of info activated, more likely the info is known ii. Stronger the intensity of retrieved info, more likely the info is in memory 3. Schreiber: Competition Hypothesis i. Metamemory judgements are greater with less competition (more competition, more difficult the retrieval) Part 2: Knowing what is known Judgements of Learning (JOLs) = Estimates for how well they have learned sth Theories of JOLs A. Inability Hypothesis i. JOLs are poor because people have little conscious awareness of their own mental processes; we lack the ability to assess our own learning B. Monitoring-retrieval Hypothesis i. JOLs are poor because people are assessing whether they can retrieve information. When JOLs are made soon after the info is encountered, since it’s still in working memory, people think the knowledge is better learned than it actually is. ii. Dunlosky & Nelson (1994): SS learned a set of words either through rote rehearsal or by forming mental images;  When JOL is made immediately after studying, no diff between how well the info was actually learned; after a delay, diff in JOLs between 2 conditions was the same as diff in actual memory performance  Koriat: Consistent with accessibility hypothesis: mismatch between conditions of studying and test → difficult to predict future performance  JOLs are more accurate condition of making judgements = condition at memory retrieval C. JOL cues i. Extrinsic = learning situation (massed vs distributed); ii. Intrinsic = material being learned (perceived ease of learning an item) > cue familiarity hypothesis 1 CH 14 Metamemory iii. Mnemonic = memory-based sources of info (assessments of how prev judgements has done) > accessibility hypothesis iv. JOLs worsen when  Multiple study-test cycles; Competition among memory traces; Increased # of associations  In line with competition hypothesis D. Allocation of study time i. Ineffective when massed practice for difficult items & distributed for easy items ii. Labour-in-vain effect = spending most of the time on things that are far from being learned iii. Region of proximal learning = people shift to spending more time on items that are just beyond their current ability level; spend less time on knowledge that is way beyond their ability Feeling of knowing (FOK) judgements = you forget sth but you think it’s somewhere in memory  According to cue-familiarity hypothesis, FOK judgements are based on the familiarity of info in the Q/cue; o “Game show” method: contestants are asked a Q & then the one who hits the buzzer 1 st gets to answer; given a question & then either answer it (control) or indicate that they know the answer (game show condition); o People know whether they have info in memory before actually retrieve it. Response time of indicating is faster than that of answering. BUT indicating they know an answer is related to familiarity & not necessary what’s in memory  FOK judgements are related to how much partial info is retrieved o With a large amount of accurate partial info, there’s a high correspondence between FOK ratings & future memory; inaccuracy of partial info lowers correspondence o Cue-familiarity accounts for early stages of pro
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