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Chapter 5

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Rotman Commerce
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Chapter 5: Theories of Work Motivation motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal - effort: the strength of the person’s work-related behaviour - persistence: the persistence the individual exhibits during work - direction: if the workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization - goals: high productivity, good attendance, creative decisions Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation intrinsic: motivation that stems from the direct relationship b/w worker and the task; usually self- applied - e.g. feelings of achievement, accomplishment from one’s job extrinsic: motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; usually applied by others - e.g. pay, fringe benefits Self-Determination Theory: - considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled autonomous motivation: when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors controlled motivation: when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequences or extrinsic reward - when extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then the motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decrease - as a result, their intrinsic motivation suffers Motivation and Performance performance: the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization general cognitive emotional - amount of effort intelligence - persistence of effort motivation ability performance - direction of effort personality task understanding chance/ luck General Cognitive Ability - a person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources - includes verbal, numerical, spatial and reasoning abilities used for mental tasks - predicts learning + training success and job performance Emotional Intelligence - ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions EI Model: 1. perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others; most basic level of EI 2. using emotions to facilitate thinking 3. understanding emotions, emotional language and the signals conveyed by emotions 4. managing emotions so as to attain specific goals; highest level of EI - found that EI predicts performance in jobs that require high levels of emotional labour (e.g. police offers) and academic performance Need Theories of Work Motivation - motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance Needs Behaviour Incentives and Goals Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - Maslow believed humans have 5 sets of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy beginning w/the most basic + compelling needs which has the greatest motivating potential - a satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator 1. physiological: survival needs e.g. food, water, oxygen, shelter a. organizational: minimum pay, working conditions 2. safety: security, stability, freedom from anxiety, structured + ordered environment a. organizational: rules + regulations, job security, pension, insurance, above min. pay 3. belongingness: social interaction, affection, love, friendship a. organizational: interacting w/others on the job, supportive supervision, teamwork 4. esteem: feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength, confidence a. organizational: feelings of achievement + responsibility, awards, promotions, professional recognition 5. self-actualization: clear perception of reality, accepting of themselves + others, independent, creative, appreciative of world around them a. organization: jobs w/potential for creativity + growth and relaxation of structure to permit self-development + personal progression Alderfer’s ERG Theory - a three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that allows for movement up + down the hierarchy 1. existence: needs satisfied by material substance/condition rather than interpersonal relations a. includes food, shelter, pay, safe working conditions 2. relatedness: satisfied by open communication + exchange of thoughts and feelings w/others a. corresponds to Maslow’s belongingness + self-esteem needs but are satisfied by open, accurate and honest interaction rather than uncritical pleasantness 3. growth: strong personal involvement in work setting w/full utilization of one’s skills + abilities and growth (self-actualization + esteem (achievement + responsibility)) - theory doesn’t assume a lower-level need must be gratified before a less concrete need becomes operative - assumes that if higher level needs are ungratified, individuals will increase their desire for the gratification of lower-level needs (radical departure from Maslow) - an apparently satisfied need can act as a motivator by substituting for an unsatisfied need - 2 major motivational premises: 1. the more lower-level needs are gratified, the more higher-level need satisfaction is desired 2. the less higher-level needs are gratified, the more lower-level need satisfaction is desired McClelland’s Theory of Needs - a non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation 1. Need For Achievement - a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well (intrinsically satisfying) - often concerned with long term goal involvement + innovation - motivated by sales jobs or entrepreneurial positions (e.g. running a small business) o a preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes o a tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks o desire for performance feedback 2. Need for Affiliation - strong desire to establish + maintain friendl
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