Chapter 18: urban sociology and research methods on neighborhoods and health. Move towards an urban-sociological model that emphasizes community-level effects. In addition to questions about what one is (education, income, ethnicity, gender, age) were added questions about where one lives (neighborhood or community-level characteristics that have a weight and impact on health) Urban sociologist have now demonstrated that neighborhood-level characteristics are important in shaping health patterns: ex. Number of civic associations can determine how much pollution there is in the local environment: live in a tight-knit cohesive group can act as a protective factor. Not easy to distinguish the effects of areas from the attributes of the people who live there. Social capital resources provided by networks and mutual trust. Urban life is a source of both physical and social risk. There are limits to the ecological view on racial matters: a study by chicago school demonstrated this.