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Commit Sociology - Culture.docx

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Christian O.Caron

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- Material culture consists of the physical or tangible creations, such as art or clothing, that are common among members of a society (72) - Technology = the knowledge, techniques, and tools that make it possible for people to transform resources into usable forms as well as the knowledge and skills required to use them after they are developed (72) - Nonmaterial culture consists of the abstract or intangible human creations, ex. Values, attitudes, beliefs (73) - Cultural universals = customs and practices that occur across all societies (74) - All cultures have symbols, language, values, and norms (74) - Asymbol is something that meaningfully represents something else, ex certain clothes or cars representing affluence (74) - Language is a system of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with each other (75) - Animals can use language, but their sounds represent fixed meanings instead of variable ones like human language (75) - Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - the idea that language shapes its speaker's view of reality (76) - People know the world only through the vocabulary and grammar of their own language, so some aspects of the world (ex gender in signifiers) are viewed as important while others are neglected (76) - For functionalists, a shared language is essential to human culture because language is a stabilizing force in society and an important means of cultural transmission (79) - Conflict theorists see language as a source of paper and social control that perpetuates inequality because language is used to keep people in their place (79) - Values are collective ideas about what is right or wrong (79) - Value contradiction is when values contradict each other or are mutually exclusive (79) - Ideal culture = the values and standards of behaviour that people in a society profess to hold (80) - Real culture = the values and standards of behaviour people actually follow (80) - Norms = established rules of behaviour or standards of conduct (80) - Prescriptive norms state what is acceptable (80) - Proscriptive norms state what isn't acceptable (80) - Formal norms are written down and involve specific punishments for violators (80) - Sanctions = rewards for appropriate behaviour or punishments for inappropriate behaviour (80) - Informal norms are unwritten standards of behaviour understood by people who share a common identity (80) - Folkways = informal norms or customs that may be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture, ex brushing your teeth (80) - Mores = strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences (81) - Taboos = mores so strong that their violation is considered extremely offensive and even unmentionable (81) - Laws = formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions (81) - Cultural lag = gap between technical development of society (material culture) and moral and legal institutions (nonmaterial culture) (82) - Discovery = the process of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized (82) - Invention = the process of re shaping existing cultural items into a new form (82) - Diffusion = the transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another (82) - Subculture =
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