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Canada (161,434)
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SOC102H1 (285)
Chapter 21

SOC102 Questioning Sociology Chapter 21

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Lorne Tepperman

Questioning Sociology Chapter 21 – How do migrants become Canadian citizens? INTRODUCTION - Citizenship ≠ immigration (because some persons are citizens by birth, descent, or adoption), but immigration = citizenship - For Canada, much of its citizenry has migrated from abroad - There are several migrant and citizen categories and identities in Canada - While immigration (and citizenship) are often assumed to be about ethnicity and labour markets, they are also about governance and moral regulation - These processes are fraught with inequalities and stimulate forms of resistance THE GOVERNANCE OF IMMIGRATION AND CITIZENSHIP - The sociology of immigration o Not a clearly defined field of inquiry o Evident in other disciplines (e.g., anthropology, demography, geography, economics, history, law, political science) - How do migrants become citizens? o Not usually addressed because immigration integration models are usually distinguished from citizenship policies and practices o Sociology has paid less attention to citizenship and more attention to immigration o Citizenship is not limited to the formal legal kind, but refers to a much broader set of practices and ways of being - The sociology of governance o Draws from the work of Michael Foucault on “governmentality” o Governance  Any attempt to control or manage any known object  Includes laws, policies, and practices of the municipal, provincial, and federal levels of the state  Includes the efforts of private authorities and organizations  How individuals govern themselves  How human behaviour or action is guided or directed o Moral regulation is present in all governing practices o Governing practices in relation to immigration and citizenship take the form of moral regulation o Moral (regulation)  Normative judgements (e.g., “should” judgements) that a particular form of behaviour is essentially wrong or bad BECOMING A MIGRANT - Landed immigrant  Permanent residents of a particular region - Immigration to Canada is non-random o Structured process shaped by Canadian immigration and refugee policies, which presume eventual citizenship for immigrants o Immigration law (regulate permanent residency) may be more significant in influencing who becomes a citizen than citizenship law - Points system  Assign applicants a number of points based on a variety of efficiencies o To determine how immigrants are to be selected o To end the racist practice of selecting immigrants from preferred nations on the part of state immigration officers  Migrants arriving in Canada over the past decade (e.g., recent immigrants)  More likely to come from nations in Asia (e.g., China, India, Philippines)  Migrants arriving in Canada before the 1960s  More likely to come from Europe o Critical sociology about the points system  Less than sanguine  There is room for racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination  E.g., Points are given for occupational skill in paid work, but non-paid and domestic work does not count as skilled work  Reservation  Those found wanting are systematically excluded o The point system and immigrant selection have a moral aspect to them - Four streams and categories of migrants within the Canadian immigration and refugee policies o Family-class immigrant o Economic-class immigrant o Refugee  Fear of being persecuted; outside of the country; unable or unwilling to return or seek protection  Two streams of refugees  Refugees selected from camps and crisis situations who may or may not fit the UN definition  Persons who make refugee claims in Canada o Other immigrant - Every year from 2000 to 2010, between 221,000 and 281,000 people became permanent residents - The Canadian public tends to think of immigrants as mostly skilled workers who have undergone the screening process o Even though in 2010, skilled workers (including spouses and dependents) represented >50% of all the migrants who became permanent residents, and skilled workers alone represented 17% of the total - Self-selection  People try to manipulate the system so they have an easier time immigrating o Business applicants  35 of 100 points  Post-secondary education is not required  English or French is not required o Skilled worker applicants  67 of 100 points based on 6 criteria o Refugee-determination process is seen as a negative o Business-immigrant process is largely invisible or positive o Far fewer enforcement resources have been directed towards business-immigrant process engaged in fraud compared to the refugee-determination process  Many entrepreneurial-class immigrants fail to meet their business obligations  40% of entrepreneurial-class immigrants fail to open a business within the two-year period of arrival - Governing through immigration o To encourage economic growth through the business immigrant program  Assume that business immigrants will bring investment capital and entrepreneurial experience o To reduce human suffering resulting from natural disaster  Response to Haitian earthquake  Expedited the existing immigrant applications of those with immediate family members in Canada through priority processing measures including Operation Stork and other ‘Haiti Special Measures’ procedures o To improve national and continental security  Response to 9/11 in the United States  Increased security, surveillance, and scrutiny at its borders  Increased the screening of immigrant applicants  Introduced the safe third country provision that renders Canadian policy more dependent on fairness of US refugee and immigration policies  Instead of refugee claimants entering the US then travel to Canadian border to make refugee claims  Forces refugee claimants to enter the US immigration system before they can enter Canada  Terrorism can be better prevented OTHER MIGRANTS: SEX-TRADE WORKERS - Special policy provisions permit migrants to enter Canada to work temporarily as exotic dancers o Not immigrants or permanent residents, and will likely never have the opportunity to become so o Required to pay fees to the club and disc jockey, and sometimes to use the cubicles o Expected to charge clients (e.g., lap dances, table dances, sexual acts) because not paid by the establishment o Susceptible to STDs and other physical harm o Agents force workers to give up their money so it can be ‘safely’ deposited in a bank
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