Inaccurate observation occurs when we make conclusions based on hasty or
Casual or semi-conscious observation is not data collection
Data collection requires using deliberate procedures for observing and
Implicit, vague, or “common sense” understandings of classifying and
recording observations aren’t good enough
Define concepts being observed in explicitly in precise and theoretically-
Overgeneralization occurs when we make conclusions about individuals or groups
based on our knowledge of similar individuals or groups, it may lead to selective
Observing something a few times in a particular group of people or in a particular
setting doesn’t necessarily mean you will observe it elsewhere
Observe in ways that make it possible to observe something different if
something different is happening
Observe people and settings that can speak to the people and context you to
which you want to generalize
The replication of inquiry provides another safeguard. Basically replication means
repeating a study and checking to see whether the same results are produced each
Selective observation is when you see only those things that you want to see. Racial
and ethnic stereotyping would be an example of negative selective observation.
Overgeneralization is that it may lead to selective observation.
Making observations without any plan for who and when to observe isn’t good
Plan for who and when to observe must make it possible to support our theory
and to disprove it.
Illogical reasoning happens when we decide that despite our past observations, the
future will be different. Statisticians have called the gambler’s fallacy is an illustration
of illogic in day-to-day reasoning. Eg, poker player believed an evening of bad luck,
the winning hand is just around the corner.
Data are not a conclusion in themselves –deriving a conclusion requires explicit
systems of reasoning
Reason carefully to ensure that your conclusion necessarily follows from the data. Introduction
Substantive: topic, research, methods.
Methodological: methods for research and evaluating the social world
Theoretical+methodological: assumptions and questions affect methods