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SOC200H1 (51)

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Alexandra Marin

Inaccurate observation occurs when we make conclusions based on hasty or incomplete observations  Casual or semi-conscious observation is not data collection  Data collection requires using deliberate procedures for observing and recording observations.  Implicit, vague, or “common sense” understandings of classifying and recording observations aren’t good enough  Define concepts being observed in explicitly in precise and theoretically- informed ways. Overgeneralization occurs when we make conclusions about individuals or groups based on our knowledge of similar individuals or groups, it may lead to selective observation.  Observing something a few times in a particular group of people or in a particular setting doesn’t necessarily mean you will observe it elsewhere  Observe in ways that make it possible to observe something different if something different is happening  Observe people and settings that can speak to the people and context you to which you want to generalize The replication of inquiry provides another safeguard. Basically replication means repeating a study and checking to see whether the same results are produced each time. Selective observation is when you see only those things that you want to see. Racial and ethnic stereotyping would be an example of negative selective observation. Overgeneralization is that it may lead to selective observation.  Making observations without any plan for who and when to observe isn’t good enough  Plan for who and when to observe must make it possible to support our theory and to disprove it. Illogical reasoning happens when we decide that despite our past observations, the future will be different. Statisticians have called the gambler’s fallacy is an illustration of illogic in day-to-day reasoning. Eg, poker player believed an evening of bad luck, the winning hand is just around the corner.  Data are not a conclusion in themselves –deriving a conclusion requires explicit systems of reasoning  Reason carefully to ensure that your conclusion necessarily follows from the data. Introduction  Theoretical: theory  Substantive: topic, research, methods.  Methodological: methods for research and evaluating the social world Overlap  Theoretical+methodological: assumptions and questions affect methods  Substantive实+methodological: how
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