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SOC202H1 (21)

CH 1 textbook notes

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Scott Schieman

CH1 – THE STATISTICAL IMAGINATION  FIELD OF STATISTICS – set of procedures for gathers, measuring,  Theories describes situations, organized explanation of facts classifying, coding, computing, analyzing and summarizing systematically  Ideas constituting a theory is tested vs. observable facts acquired numerical information  Corroborated theory = its ideas successfully predict o Goal: balanced perspective w/ precision in gathering/presenting info observable facts  Counters perceptions of reality distorted by subjective feelings,  Adequate scientific theory accomplishes: biases, prejudices  1. Provide understanding of phenomenon: how, when, Linking the Statistical Imagination to the Sociological Imagination why, occurs under what conditions  2. Allows make empirical predictions, w/ similar cases  Sociological Imagination – An awareness of relationships of the individual o Scientists also skeptics: req. critical & doubting attitude to the wider society and to history o Recognize individual behavior is conducted in relationship to larger  Tolerate uncertainty & not draw quick conclusions social structures  Informed Common Sense – used in science, that which is weighed and double check against carefully gather data o i.e. see isolated detail as part of larger picture  VARIABLES – measurable phenomena that vary (changes) over time or that  STATISTICAL IMAGINATION – Appreciate how usual/usual an event, circumstance, or behavior is in relation to a larger set of similar events and differs btwn places & individuals an appreciation of an event’s causes and consequences o Represented by capital English letters –ex. X = gender o Subjects’ feature, where subject = people or objects o Involve prediction, inference, probabilistic thinking, o Variation – how much the measurement of a variable differ among o Req. keep track of details  minimize error study subjects o Understand most events are predictable  Occurrence probability based on long-term trends/circumstances o Constants – characteristic of study subjects that do not vary o Understand broader picture of reality, to overcome  Could be intentional as control variables, isolate effects o Dependent Variable – want to explain this variable’s variation misunderstandings, prejudices, narrow-mindedness o Independent Variable – predictor variables that are related to/predict  Statistical interpretation must take into account circumstances of a variation in the DV phenomenon, incl. social values of society or groups w/i it o Social values may limit/enlarge human response to a statistic o HYPOTHESIS – a predication about the relationship of two variables, asserting that differences among the measurements of an IV will o Normative Statistic – culturally bound, its interpretation depends on correspond to differences among the measurements of a DV the place, time and culture in which it is observed  Myth – widely held beliefs that are false o Social Norm – a shared idea of the behavior that is appropriate or inappropriate in a given situation in a given culture  Research Process  Statistical Norm – a phenomenon’s average rate of occurrence o 1. Specify the Research Question o 2. Review the Scientific Literature o Differ btwn societies, groups b/c influenced by social norm  Check propose research is not redundant/overlap o An existent average o Ex. US IMRs high amongst MEDCs, low amongst all nations o 3. Propose a theory and state h
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