The city in history
Most of our knowledge about early cities is based on archaeological excavations
Cities have existed for about 10,000 years, Jericho is the oldest city, 9000-8000
Human settlements occurred both as a response to the need for protection and as a
reflection of power
Development of agriculture, people growing and raising their food rather than
being always on the move in search of food, allowed for a more sedentary way of
Most of these ancient cities were located on river plains where the rich soil would
yield good crops
Characteristics of early cities
There were the centres of a civilization in which there was some sort of
None of these early settlements grew continuously
Precursor for modern cities
Domestication of plants and animals is the first stage of agriculture revolution.
The agriculturalists produced more than they needed to survive.
The food surplus could support city dwellers who would thus be free to build,
think, invent, and create.
Urban dwellers like people in the earliest cities, are released from subsistence
concerns and can create works of art build bridges and public buildings, and
focus on health care or leisure pursuits as careers.
Made it possible for cities to grow and develop with a much more complex
division of labour
Four consequence fo the ability to produce a surplus
Development of complex division of labour
Supported a hierarchical society, leader could extract a portion of the surlus
in the form of a tax
The existence of a ruler-controlled surplus required an administrative
structure to manage the surplus and the social controls that rewarded those
who conformed to the wishes of the leaders and punished those who did not
Accentuated social inequalities.
Rise and fall of cities
City needed a vast hinterland to supply its needs and therefore was often the
centre of trade and commerce
Cities reflect the desire of their leaders to expand their territorial influence. Collapse of empires-devastating effect on city at its centre
Capitalism and industrialism and the city
Trade had always been an important urban function, and the location of a city was
often related to its position on trade routes.
Emergence of capitalism transformed social life and established market economy
Labour was now exchange for monetary reward
Social stratification related to income and achievement
The birth of mechanized production in factories, often linked to the invention
of the steam engine, which provided employment for growing urban
populations beginning in Britain then Europe, then North America in later
1700s and extending to 1850
Introduced a more complex class system--- an increasingly powerful
entrepreneurial class on the one hand and a poorly paid class fo laborers on
the other, with a new middle class of merchants and administrators.
Both slums and suburbs emerged with the industrial revolution
Workers were needed and as people flooded into the cities to take advantage
of these new opportunities, there was little infrastructure to support them.
Industrial city as polluted, poor working condition, crowded----Dickensian
Factory is the important symbol of city
Colonialism and the rise of New cities
European nation-states seeking to control the new land not only as a means
of extending their influence but also to satisfy the demands of their urban
As wealth and power grew in European cities, a consumer base existed for
materials and products brought from far-flung countries.
In order to export precious metals, fish, furs, spices, or tropical fruit, a port
city was usually established in the new territory that would serve as
beachhead for colonial influence and trade.
New york, Boston, Halifax, Hong Kong, Singapore, Kingston (Jamaica),
Delhi, Cape Town, Lagos, and Sydney were just a few among many cities
that grew as the result of the interests of foreign empires. Characteristics of these colonial cities
1．They were administrative centres structured by representative from the
empire government, i