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Chapter 1

Chapter 1.pdf

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Brent Berry

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Chapter 1 The city in history  Most of our knowledge about early cities is based on archaeological excavations  Cities have existed for about 10,000 years, Jericho is the oldest city, 9000-8000 BC  Human settlements occurred both as a response to the need for protection and as a reflection of power  Development of agriculture, people growing and raising their food rather than being always on the move in search of food, allowed for a more sedentary way of life  Most of these ancient cities were located on river plains where the rich soil would yield good crops  Characteristics of early cities  There were the centres of a civilization in which there was some sort of dominant authority  None of these early settlements grew continuously Agricultural revolution  Precursor for modern cities  Domestication of plants and animals is the first stage of agriculture revolution.  The agriculturalists produced more than they needed to survive.  The food surplus could support city dwellers who would thus be free to build, think, invent, and create.  Urban dwellers like people in the earliest cities, are released from subsistence concerns and can create works of art build bridges and public buildings, and focus on health care or leisure pursuits as careers.  Made it possible for cities to grow and develop with a much more complex division of labour  Four consequence fo the ability to produce a surplus  Development of complex division of labour  Supported a hierarchical society, leader could extract a portion of the surlus in the form of a tax  The existence of a ruler-controlled surplus required an administrative structure to manage the surplus and the social controls that rewarded those who conformed to the wishes of the leaders and punished those who did not  Accentuated social inequalities. Rise and fall of cities  City needed a vast hinterland to supply its needs and therefore was often the centre of trade and commerce  Cities reflect the desire of their leaders to expand their territorial influence.  Collapse of empires-devastating effect on city at its centre Capitalism and industrialism and the city  Trade had always been an important urban function, and the location of a city was often related to its position on trade routes.  Emergence of capitalism transformed social life and established market economy  Labour was now exchange for monetary reward  Social stratification related to income and achievement  Industrial revolution  The birth of mechanized production in factories, often linked to the invention of the steam engine, which provided employment for growing urban populations beginning in Britain then Europe, then North America in later 1700s and extending to 1850  Introduced a more complex class system--- an increasingly powerful entrepreneurial class on the one hand and a poorly paid class fo laborers on the other, with a new middle class of merchants and administrators.  Both slums and suburbs emerged with the industrial revolution  Workers were needed and as people flooded into the cities to take advantage of these new opportunities, there was little infrastructure to support them.  Industrial city as polluted, poor working condition, crowded----Dickensian City  Factory is the important symbol of city  Space-intensive  Labour-intensive  Colonialism and the rise of New cities  European nation-states seeking to control the new land not only as a means of extending their influence but also to satisfy the demands of their urban marketplaces  As wealth and power grew in European cities, a consumer base existed for materials and products brought from far-flung countries.  In order to export precious metals, fish, furs, spices, or tropical fruit, a port city was usually established in the new territory that would serve as beachhead for colonial influence and trade.  New york, Boston, Halifax, Hong Kong, Singapore, Kingston (Jamaica), Delhi, Cape Town, Lagos, and Sydney were just a few among many cities that grew as the result of the interests of foreign empires.  Characteristics of these colonial cities 1.They were administrative centres structured by representative from the empire government, i
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