Textbook Notes (363,372)
Canada (158,352)
Sociology (1,480)
SOC205H1 (16)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7, 9, 11

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University of Toronto St. George
Brent Berry

Chapter 7 Immigration and Race in the City History of Immigration y About 13 million immigrants arrived in Canada in the twentieth century y Most recently in the 1990s more than 22 million immigrants arrived the largest number in any decade since the nineteenth century y People from different parts of the world arrived in different time periods y In the early years of the last century from 1920s to 1940s most immigrants came from the British Isles and northwestern European countries y By the 1960s the number of European immigrants decreased and the number of Asian immigrants increased y The immigrants from 2000 to 2006 were predominantly nonEuropean y As a result of the waves of immigration from different regions of the world Canada has become a multiethnic society Where Immigrants Settley Most immigrants at the beginning of the last century did not settle in cities y Mostly resided in rural areas y As Canada experienced urbanization immigration settlement patterns changedSettlement pattern began to shift towards cities in the middle of the twentieth centuryy However recent immigrants have not settled evenly throughout Canadian citiesMajority chooses to settle in large citiesThey are attracted by the jobs there as well as the possibility of ethnic networksA large proportion of recent immigrants have settled in the five largest Canadian cities Toronto Vancouver Montreal Ottawa and Calgary These five cities held 77 of immigrants from 2001 and 2006y Despite the high concentration of recent immigrants in a few cities the relatively high representation of immigrants in most cities suggest that earlier immigrants settled in a larger set of citiesy However not all cities have high proportions of immigrantsFor example Saskatchewany The uneven distribution of recent immigrants in the major cities suggest that some cities face issues related to immigrant adaption for than others do Racial and Ethnic Composition in Citiesy Since immigrants from different countries have arrived throughout the history of Canada and that each group has demonstrated a unique settlement pattern the racial and ethnic composition varies from city to cityy Canadians are commonly identified with more than one ethnic background Especially true in cities where intermarriage occurs y The ethnic representations in different cities varyIf all those with multiple ethnic backgrounds are compared English French Scottish and Irish are always among the largest six groups in the largest six citiesIn other wordsa significant proportion of Canadians residing in these cities identified themselves as having part of their cultural roots from these groups y Those who reported only single ethnic backgrounds are most likely immigrants or children of immigrants The demographic information tells us two things 1 Individuals with partial ethnicity of the early immigrant groups such as British French and northern and western European can be found in most major cities 1 This pattern may suggest the geographic dispersion of these groups and their high percentage of intermarriage2 Individuals of various ethnic groups who identified themselves as having single ethnic origin are not evenly distributedThey are concentrated in a few major citiesImmigration and Ethnic Relations in Cities Socioeconomic Background of Immigrants To better understand the lives of immigrants in the city we need to consider their educational experience and workforce participation Immigrants have higher levels of education than the Canadianborn population both the immigrant population and the Canadianborn population include many people whohave not completed high school however the percentage is lower among immigrantsespecially recent immigrantsMore immigrants have completed university than have Canadianborn residents knowing at least one of the two official languages is important for immigrants to become economically and socially integratedThis allows them to compete in the labour market to develop new social relations and to extend their social networks However a higher percentage of immigrants than the Canadianborn population do not know either French or English Despite a high level of education immigrants are not able to compete well in the labour market These patterns are revealed by various indicators 1 Immigrants aged 15 or over have a lower employment than the employment rate for the Canadianborn population2 A higher percentage of immigrants are not in the labour force 3 Even among those that are employed fewer are working fulltime and more are employed parttime in comparison to the Canadianborn population4 Although a higher proportion of immigrants have completed university and research shows the educational level is related to income immigrants still are not able to attain a higher income than the Canadianborn population Recent immigrants have a much lower average income level than the people born in CanadaEconomic Attainments of ImmigrantsEconomic integrationrefers to economic performance of immigrants as compared to nativeborn residents Economic integration of immigrants in the city has drawn considerable attention because 1 Economic opportunities for immigrants affect their integration process2 Possible economic consequences for the city economy such as increasing the supply of labour and affecting the quality of the labour force3 The majority of recent immigrants settling in urban areas suggests that the economic attainment of immigrants is an urban issue The dominant perspective the assimilation perspectiveLargely based on the experience of European immigrants at the beginning of the last centuryThis theory expects that immigrants usually start out from humble beginnings in a new countryThey gradually move up the occupational and social ladder as they accumulate more working experience learn the language and expand their social networks Eventually immigrants reach the same level of economic achievement as the nativeborn population current research does not support this optimistic picture for recent immigrant groups 2
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