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Chapter 8

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC312H1
Professor
Brent Berry
Semester
Winter

Description
SOC312 Chapter 8: Internal Migration  All types of internal migration have common motive: movers’ desire for improvement (economic situation or sense of well being)  Internal Migration: Migration within a given territory but involving the crossing of significant administrative boundaries (i.e. those of a city or province)  Migration has 3 components: o Crossing of administrative boundaries o Long distance travel o Permanent or semi-permanent change in residence  Scale of analysis: o Migrants: people who not only changed address but who moved to a different administrative jurisdiction o Non-migrants: individuals who move house within the same community and students who move away from their usual community but only for a limited period of time, to attend college or university o Transients: people move from one jurisdiction to another but have no fixed address and whose movements cannot be easily treated (also treated as non-migrants) o ‘In-migrant’  person who migrates into one administrative area from another area within the same country o ‘out-migrant’ people who leave one administrative for another within the same country  These two (in-migrants and out migrants) are comparative to immigrants and emigrants  Uniqueness of migration: o Not a biological process so not subject to biological restrictions (doesn’t matter what age or gender) o Don’t have to report whether you moved or not (some countries such as Denmark, Finland, Japan do) data not complete Sources of Migration Statistics  Ideal migration data set includes: o Data on origins and destinations of migrants o Data disaggregated by age, sex, other characteristics o Data available in one year groups o Data available annually for a large number of time periods o Data produced in a timely manner o Data consistent with relevant population base for calculating migration rates  Sources: o Population registers o Sample surveys o Administrative files (i.e. income tax returns) o Census  Census has questions that ask for address at two points in time  tells us about respondents’ movements  Consistency in results: over ½ of Canadians aged 5+y.o. do not change their place of residence in each census interval  Canadians who do move approx. ½ stay within same community  So only ¼ of all Canadians qualify as migrants, and most of them relocate within same province o Limitations of census data:  Cannot detect multiple moves within specified period  Sampling error  mobility question only asked of 20% households that receive the long census form  Cannot tell us anything about emigration o Advantages of census data:  Cover entire country, make is possible to cross-classify movers by host of individual characteristics Basic Measures of Migration: Migration Rates:    ( ) o In migration + out migration  ( ) o In migration – out migration o Useful indicator of regional gains and losses o Gives good sense of relative impact of migration o + NMR = population is gaining people through migratory exchanges o – rate means that population is losing people o Underdeveloped regions tend to experience net losses o Prosperous regions tend to experience net gains  More movement to core-periphery systems  economic deprivation causes underdeveloped peripheral regions to export people while economically developed core must import people in order to meet its economic objectivities  Stream specific migration rates: o Exchange of migratory flows or streams between two places o o Where M shoij intensity of migration between origin place i and destination place j  Analysis of migration frequencies: o Migration efficiency  Measured as ratio of net migration to total migration (in+ out)  ( )  Specific to a single geographic area  Measures the degree of imbalance or asymmetry between a pair or system of migration flows and counterflows  Symmetrical flows suggest migration operates primarily as an exchange process which services to maintain the settlement system in dynamic equilibrium  Usually expressed in percentage  High value (negative or positive) shows that the degree of efficiency is very high  Values closer to 0 indicate inter-area flows are more balanced  Estimating migration using residual methods: o (Indirect methods), using the demographic components equation: o Net migration = (P -2P 1 – (B-D) Explanations of Migration: The ‘Laws’ of Migration 1. Migration and Distance a. Most migrants travel short distances and volume of the migration from one area to another decreases as the distance between them increases b. People who travel long distances gravitate towards largest urban centres (economic opportunities are greatest) 2. Migration by stages a. Urban expansion has gradual effect on migration b. People living close to city take up newly created jobs, migrants in remote areas move to take up their jobs where they were vacated 3. Stream and counter stream a. For every stream of migration in one direction, there is a counter stream 4. Urban-rural differences in propensity to migrate a. Migration more likely among rural than urban pop 5. Predominance of women among short-distance migrants a. Women>men in short-distance migration b. Men>women in long distance migration 6. Technology and migration a. Technological development tends to stimulate migration (ex. improvements in transportation) 7. Dominance of economic motives a. Economic considerations are most important determinants of migration  Found that in-migrants to economically disadvantaged provinces gain in income when compared to non- migrants in destination provinces, but the income gains are greatest for those moving from disadvantaged provinces to more affluent ones  The Mobility Transition: o 7 types of geographic mobility through 5 phases o Phase 1: Pre-modern traditional society  Small communities, rely on land for sustenance  Little residential migration o Phase 2: Early transitional  Massive rural to urban relocation  Sparked in Western Europe by Industrial Revolution  Massive emigration to foreign lands o Phase 3: Late transitional phase  Rural to urban migration levels off  Population movement becomes increasingly urban to urban  Increasing movement of international migrants b/c of labour demands o Phase 4: Advanced society  Majority of population lives in urban areas  Rural to urban migration is further reduced  City to city mobility becomes most important type of movement  High levels of circulation mobility (movement that involves at least one night away from home but doesn’t entail a permanent change of residence) o Phase 5: Super advanced society  Sophisticated communication technologies allow people to work from home (eliminates need for circulation mobility) Typological Models of Migration  Typologies are conceptual schemata that describe a phenomenon (migration) in relation to selected factors deemed relevant toward an understanding of it  Advantage  impose conceptual order on factors presumed to be involved in generating migration  Disadvantage  oversimplifies an inherently complex process since it only deals with associations among factors Conservative vs. Innovating Migration  Conservative: motivated by desire to escape a situation that poses a significant threat to the well-being of the individual (such as war or systematic persecution by a dominant group)  Innovating: Motivated by the desire to improve one’s socioeconomic status  Juxtaposed the type of migration (innovating or conservative with 3 factors): o Type of interaction involved  Nature and humans, state and humans, humans and norms, collective behaviour o Migratory force assumed  Ecological push, migration policy, higher aspirations, social momentum o Class of migration  Primitive, impelled, force, free, mass Spatial Models of Migration  Models of this kind explicitly stress the importance of aggregate relationships o Ex. relationship between interregional wage differentials and migration rates o Models include few variables and distance plays a major role The Distance-Gravity Model:  Most immigrants move only a short distance, long distance moves are relatively infrequent  Gross migration (M ) 12tween two places: o where D is distance  Corresponds to basic notion of ‘least effort’: the idea that when people are required to migrate (ex. to look for work) they would generally prefer to travel as short a distance as possible  Why? o Longer distance= greater financial, psychological and social costs o Psychological costs (friends/family) of relocations greater for long-distance migrants> short distance migrants Intervening Opportunities Model:  Most important factor is not distance but opportunity  Proposed that number of people moving a given distance is directly proportional to the number of opportunities at that distance and inversely proportional to number of opportunities that intervene between places number of opportunities a migrant would encounter on the way from one place to the other Neoclassical Macroeconomic Model:  Differential economic opportunities structures across geographical areas are the key determinants of interregional migration patterns and that structural conditions in the areas of origin and destination can either promote or discourage migration  Generalizations: o Distance has declined as a deterrent to migration in Canada  Still important but because of reductions in cost of transportation and telecommunications o Areas with high proportions of highly educated people more likely to send out migrants than are places with lower proportions of highly educated people o Higher incidence of violent crime is not likely to deter migrants from going there o Places that normally experience harsh winter conditions do not attract as many migrants than places that have more moderate locations o A place that attracts many immigrants from abroad will attract many internal migrants ‘Rational Actor’ Model of Migration:  Individuals make their rational choices based on available actions  Push and pull factors are taken into account and generally represented as economic costs and benefits  Values such as: o Income/wealth o Comfort o Stimulation o Affiliation o Easier lifestyle o Environmental quality o Health o Functional independe
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