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MAY 13 Reading - B WHEATON.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC363H1
Professor
Katie Staurt
Semester
Summer

Description
WheatonB2001TheRoleofSociologyintheStudyofMentalHealthandtheRoleofMentalHealthintheStudyofSociologyJournalofHealthAndSocialBehavior42322134Pages221224ONLYUnemploymentandPsychologicalWellBeingCrosssectionallongitudinalandprospectivestudiesofindividualsandtimeseriesaggregatestudiesofcommunitieshaveshownthatunemploymentincreasessymptomsofanxietyanddepressionandreducesselfesteemandsecurityJahodaLatentdeprivationmodelThemanifestorintendedfunctionofemploymentisearningalivingwhereasthelatentorunintendedfunctionincludesdefinitionofidentityandconnectiontoimportantsocialinstitutionsandassociationsLosingemploymentmeanslosingallofthisFryereffectsofemploymentonmentalhealthareprimarilyduetofinancialstrainPearlinUnemploymentisaprimarystressorthatmaysetintomotiondisruptivesecondarystressorssuchaseconomicdeprivationLosingsocialtiesandeconomicstabilityamongothersmaybestressfulinthemselvesMorenegativeamongpersonsoflowsocioeconomicstatusPreemploymenteconomiccircumstancesofwomenmorelikelytoexperiencediscriminationinthelabormarketwhichdiminisheschancesofreemploymentlikelythatunemploymentismoreproblematicforwomenespeciallysinglemothersThemeaningandconsequenceofjoblosswillvarydependingonthestateoftheeconomyatagiventimeandplaceEcologicallevelstudieshavetheadvantageofemphasizingthebroadereconomicforcesthatmayunderlieindividualepisodesofunemploymentStudiesofmacroeconomicconditionstoindividualunemploymenthasfoundthataggregateunemploymenttobeassociatedwithincreasesindepressivemoodandstressfullifeeventsinmetropolitanareasNoevidencefortheinteractionbetweenbroadeconomicchangesandunemploymentonanindividuallevelAnotherstudydidfindaninteractionwithstrongerassociationsamongthosewithlowerlevelsofeducationIndividualswithloweducationalattainmentappeartobehighlyvulnerabletomacroeconomicdownturnsConclusionFenwickandTausigwhostudiedtherelationshipbetweencommunitylevelunemploymentandlevelsofjobstressfoundsupportfortheirhypothesisthatthoseemployedwouldalsostruggleTheassociationbetweenhigheroccupationalunemploymentratesanddecreasedlifesatisfactionandincreasedstressadditionallyreducingjobqualityTheeconomicrecessionof19741975foundsimilarresultsParentalunemploymenthasalsobeenfoundtohavelongtermeffectsonchildrenthroughthechildsloweredselfesteemWelfarereformhasproducedmixedresultsoBothmothersandtheirchildrenarelikelytobenefitfromeffortsdirectedatimprovingemploymentandprovidinghigherqualityjobsbecausegoodjobscancompensateforotherdifficultiesthatsinglefamiliescanfaceoLikelihoodthatthoseleavingwelfarewillenterlowskilllowpayingservicesectorjobssuggeststhatemploymentmayhaveanegativeeffectonmentalhealthUnfairtreatmentofemployeesbytheirsupervisorsislinkedtohigherriskofpoormentalhealthinemployeesPage227230DefinitionofMentalDisorderMentaldisordersdisturbancesinthementallifeoftheindividualthathavedeleteriousconsequencesfortheindividualsrelationshiptoothersoTimelimitedperturbationsanxietyfromtheindividualsusualpatternofthinkingandfeelingsuchasasuddenpanicattackoramonthlongepisodeofdepressionoLongtermdeviationsthathavenoapparentcauseschizophreniaandantisocialpersonalitydisorderUseofalcoholorotherpsychoactivesubstancesdoesnotinitselfmeetthecriteriaformentaldisorderunlessthereisotherevidenceofmentaldisturbanceDeviationincognitionoremotionthatarepartofeverydayhumanexistencenecessitatinganarbitrarythresholdTheindividualsrelationshiptoothersoperationallydefinesthethresholdforthepresenceofdisorderMentaldisturbancedonotqualifyasmentaldisordersunlesstheybringaboutadisruptionoftheindividualssocialrelationshipsSocialnetworksaredefiningconceptsintheoperationaldefinitionofmentaldisorderCanhaveinfectioustoxicologicalgeneticneurodevelopmentalpsychologicalandsocialcausesSocioeconomicStratificationDefinedastheprocessbywhichindividualsareaccordedunequalaccesstorewardsandresourcesinsocietyoHierarchicallyorderedalongacontinuumastowealtheconomicpowerpoliticalandprestigecultureSocialclassesaregroupsofindividualswhoaresimilarintheirwealthpowerorprestigeandwhoeitheroInteractwithoneanothermoreoftenthanrandomlyoAwareofsomecommoninterestMarxiandefinitionclosegroupofindividualsdefinedbytheirrelationshiptotheownershipandcontrolofthemeansofproductionorbytheprocessof
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