Chapter Three.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Carly Manion

Chapter Three: Cognitive Developments - Piaget's and Vygotsky's Theories Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development (129 - 164) Clinical Interview Method: asking children to explain answers and reasoning Key Concepts in Piaget's Theory Cognitive stages: Qualitative stages in sequence Development as Changes in Knowledge Structures  Schemes: physical actions w. mental operations and theory  Physical knowledge: knowing the attributes of the objects  Logico-mathematical knowledge: mental construction of relationships (observing and experiment)  Social knowledge: from interaction w. others Principles of Development  Organization and Adaptation: organize and adapt behavior  Assimilation and Accomodation: mold new information into schemes and changing existing schemata Development Process  Factors affecting children's cognitive development o Maturation of physical o Physical experience w. evn't o Social transmission of knowledge o Equilibrium - innate tendency to keep cognitive structure in balance Stages of cognitive development 1. Sensorimotor: goal-directed behavior and object permanence  circular reactions: pleasure seeking goal-directed behavior  Object permanence: object exist even if its not there 2. Pre-operational: using symbols but lack logical operation  Representational thinking: use word for real object  Deferred imitation: repeat simple action/sound  Increase in numerosity and develop intuitive theories about world and they are unable to distinguish between living and non-living (animism)  Intuitive because they based on immediate experiences and are faced with realism because they cann
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