BIAGI Chapter 1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Steve Hoselton

BIAGI Chapter 1: Mass Media and Everyday Life  3500 B.C.  first known pictographs carved in stone  2500 B.C.  Egyptians invent papyrus   1000 B.C.  First Info Com Revol: Phonetic Writing  1445  Chinese invent copper press  1455  Second Info Com Revol: Movable Type  1600s  first American book  1700s  first American magazine  1800s  Thomas Edison: phonograph  1899  first wireless radio by Guglielmo Marconi  1920s  first feature-length motion picture (Jazz Singer) in NYC  1920-30s  NBC debuts TV: 5/9inch $200~600  1951  Third Info Com Revol: digital computers that can process, store, and retrieve infos  1980  deregulation of broadcast media \  1989  first internet web browser  2008  internet advertising income: $23 billion; doubled since 2000  Today  wireless digital tech is standard for all mass media; mass media is becoming personalized and mobile. Mass Media Are Everywhere You Are  Today’s adults spend more than ½ their waking lives with media (more than sleeping)  Mass media affects us economically, socially and culturally  American media industries make about $436 billion a year (most from TV, least from Books and radios) Mass Communication Becomes Wireless  Until the 1990s, electricity was required to work your radio/TV/computer/etc. Today, we have “wireless mass media”  Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity); media at any location without wires; media became mobile  Most systems in digital env are “Invisible”  wires are replaced by electronic signals  “Who will ride the next avalanche of bits on the info superhighway – and who will be buried under it?”, George Gilder, a futurist. How the Communication Process Works  Communication: act of sending msgs, ideas, and opinions; talking, writing, gestures, moving bodies, rolling eyes, etc.  3 ways of communication: o Intrapersonal com: communicating within one person o Interpersonal com: communicating with each other using 5 senses – direct sharing of experience o Mass com: Com from one person or group of persons through a transmitting device (medium) to large audiences or markets  Process of mass com: o Sender: source o Message: signal o Receiver: place where the msg arrives ex) TV set o Channel: delivers the message (cable or satellite line) o Medium or media (pl): means by which a message reaches the audience o Feedback: response sent back to the sender from person who receives the com o Noise: distortion (such as static or briefly interrupted signal) that interferes with clear com; it can interrupt or change the messages during transmission (btw sender – msg – receiver)  Mass communication shares 3 characteristics: 1. Msg is sent out on some form of mass com system (Internet/print/broadcast/etc) 2. Msg is delivered rapidly 3. Msg reaches large grps of diff kinds of people simultaneously or within a short period of time What Are the Mass Media Industries?  Mass Media Industries: describes 8 types of mass media businesses o Books, newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio, movies, television, internet  Industries: primary goal = to generate money  Newspapers, magazines, and books were the only mass media for 250yrs since 1640. Books  40 000 titles a year are published in US (some reprints/new editions/etc)  Book publishing = oldest media industry; static (little growth potential) Newspapers  1500 daily newspapers exist in US  There are morning & afternoon delivery papers  Declining papers: afternoon delivery & weekly papers  Advertising is > 2/3 of daily newspaper  Newspaper income is dec-ing  Expanding through online editions Magazines  15 000 magazines published in US  Numbers are dec-ing, thus income dec-ing  Expanding through online editions  Few are exclusively online Recordings  People >25 are most common buyers of recordings (younger generations download online legal/illegal)  Source of income: CD, downloading, music videos  Industry income is dec-ing Radio  13 000 radio stations in US (AM/FM)  2100 public (mostly FM)  Satellite radio ex. Sirius XM: revenue from subscriptions; no commercials, unlimited music/program Movies  30 000 theatres in US  Studios make about 400 pictures a year  Inc-ing ticket price, but dec-ing theatre visit with inc-ing home movie watching  Movie theatres are dec-ing  Income: theatres, DVDs, overseas movie sales, movie downloads Television  1600 TV stations in US  1 out of 4 stations are public  Stations affiliated with network: NBC, CBS, ABC, Fox  The Independents are not affiliated with any network  > 90% of homes are wired for cable/satellite  Cable and Satellite service = Subscription TV: consumer service delivered by cable and satellite TV  Subscription TV income is inc-ing, but TV network income is dec-ing  TV revenue is growing steadily Internet  Growing fastest  Internet is new media, as well as integrated delivery system of traditional print, audio, and video. 3 Key Concepts to Remember 1. Mass media are profit-centered business 2. Technological developments change the way mass media are delivered and consumed 3. Mass media both reflect and affect politics, society and culture Mass Media are Profit-Centered Business  Motives: fulfill public’s need for info, influence country’s governance, disseminate country’s culture, offer entertainment, and to provide outlet for artistic expression  Main Motive: to make PROFIT  To understand MM industries, know who owns important channels of communication – all media in US are private except PBS and NPR – their budget put together is less than 2% of amount advertisers papy every year to support America’s commercial media  Overall, American media ownership has been contracting rather than expanding bc large companies are buying smaller companies; this is called Concentration of Ownership: the current trend of large companies buying smaller companies so fewer companies own more types of media businesses  4 different forms of concentrated ownership Chain – describes company that owns number of newspapers o 1700s: First chain by Benjamin Franklin (newspaper) o 1930s: William Randolph Hearst continued tradition o Today: Gannett is the today’s giant Broadcast Network – a collection of radio or TV stations that offers programs during designated program times o Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates broadcast station ownership and operations; FCC is government regulated o 4 major: ABC, NBC, CBS, Fox (Fox only serves TV) o NBC is oldest; founded in 1920s o Networks can have many affiliates: stations that use network programming but are owned by companies other than the networks; no network can have 2 affiliates (gov law) o Networks are taking programming to their viewers instead of waiting for viewers to come to them: giving access to programs for download. Conglomerates – companies that own media companies as well as businesses that are unrelated to the media business Vertical Integration – attempt by one company to simultaneously control several related aspects of media business, with each part of the company helping each other. o Many media companies own >1 type of media: newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, etc. o Ex) Gannette  owns radio and TV Competition and Convergence Dominate  Today’s companies face heavy pressure to deliver hefty (lots) profits to shareholders.  Companies today are driven by media convergence: describing 2 developments taking simultaneously 1) Melding (blending) of communications, computer and electronics industries
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