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Chapter 5

Psychology 46-339 Chapter 5 notes

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Chapter 5: Physical and Cognitive Development Early and Middle Childhood Slow-growing Frontal Lobes Compared to other parts of the brain, frontal lobe development is on a delayed timetable. As frontal lobes mature throughout childhood and adolescence, our ability to think through, inhibit, and plan our actions gradually improves. Environmental Threats to Growth and Motor Skill Development st Inadequate Nutrition: top ranking 21 century global public health threat to physical development! Stunting Compromises bone, muscle, and brain development Causes lethargy Obesity in the United States In the United States obesity is the underlying cause of 400,000 deaths in 2000, a 33 percent jump from 1990. The CDC predicts that if trends continue obesity will become the nation’s No. 1 cause of preventable death. About one-third of U.S. adults (33.8%) are obese. Approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2—19 years are obese. Data from the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) Childhood Obesity Assessed by BMI = ratio weight tthheight Obesity: BMI at or above the 95 % compared to U.S. norms established for children in the 1970s Physical Fitness When Compared to Children Growing Up in the 60’s Children Today Have: More body fat Higher resting heart rate Less Muscle Strength Less Lung Capacity Less Physical Endurance Higher Cholesterol Higher Blood Pressure % of U.S. Children Aged 6-11 who are classified as Obese Childhood Obesity Global Epidemic Demographics differ in developed and developing worlds Obesity in the developed world Children from low income families In U.S., highest among Latino and African American children Developing world: disease of the “well-off” Factors Promoting Obesity Primary Culprit: lack of physical activity Video Games, Internet, TV Research shows that time spent watching TV predicts obesity Oversized portions of food; Fast Food Restaurant foods, large servings, and caloric content Negative attitudes toward the obese Teasing; Stereotyping Studies show gym teachers display negative attitude (obese children judged slow and clumsy) Cognitive Development Jean Piaget Piagetian Approach: Emphasizes qualitative changes in children’s thinking. Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 Years) Pre-operational Stage (2 to 7) Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11) Formal Operational Stage (11 up) Jean Piaget Pre-operational Stage (2 to 7) Children learn to deal with the world symbolically, representationally, not logically. Major accomplishment is
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