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Chapter 3

46-115 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Oligodendrocyte, Astrocyte, Neuroglia


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1150
Professor
Dr.Jill Singleton- Jackson
Chapter
3

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Learning Objectives Chapter 3:
LO 3.1 – Distinguish the parts of neurons and what they do…
Neurons: a nerve cell specialized for communication
PARTS OF A NEURON:
Cell body (soma) : materials needed by the neuron are made here
Dendrites: portion of neuron that receives signals (dendrites spread out to
listen in on information from neighbouring neurons and pass it on to the cell
body) *branchlike
Axon: portion of the neuron that sends signals (send out messages to other
neurons)
Axon Terminal: knoblike structure at the far end of the axon
Synaptic Vesicle: tiny spheres that contain neurotransmitters (manufactured
in the cell body and travel down the length of the axon) *when the synaptic
vesicle reaches the end of the axon terminal, it bursts, thus releasing
neurotransmitters. (like a liquid jell advil)
Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that neurons use to communicate
with each other. *chemical messenger specialized for communication from
neuron to neuron
Synapse: space between two connecting neurons through which messages
are transmitted chemically (contains synaptic cleft)
Synaptic cleft: a gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon
terminal *as neurotransmitters are released from the axon of a cell into the
synapse, they’re quickly picked up by the dendrites of nearby neurons, just
as phone receivers quickly pick up signals from other phones.
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