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Chapter

Psychology 46-333 emotion notes (ch 13)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3330
Professor
Brown

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Emotion'
'
Definition'
emotion'is#defined#as#feeling#that#underlies#behavior,#such#as#happiness#
it#can#additionally#be#seen#as#a#response-when,#for#example,#a#person#sees#a#particular#situation#as#
fearful#or#threatening,#like#public#speaking#
it#can#also#be#seen#as#a#motivation#when#emotional#excitement#accompanies#satisfying#a#
physiological#state,#like#delight#when#you#get#to#eat#chocolate#as#a#reward#for#a#behavior.#
#
Theories'of'Emotion'
there#are#six#main#theories#of#emotion:#
the#James1Lange-theory#states#that#body#changes#come#before#perceived#emotions#
if#a#person#is#walking#along#and#sees#a#snake,#according#to#James‐Lange,#they#will#run#away#
and#then-feel#afraid#
the#Cannon1Bard-theory#states#that#body#changes#and#emotions#occur#simultaneously#
a#person#would#see#the#snake,#feel#afraid#and#run#away#at#the#same#time#
the#Schacter1Singer#(or#cognitive-theory-or#two1factor-theory)#states#that#how#we#perceive#a#
situations#dictates#what#emotions#we#will#feel;#it#is#a#combination#of#physical#responses#and#
cognitive#motivation#
if#a#person#is#fearful#a#snakes,#coming#upon#a#snake#on#a#trail#will#provoke#fear#as#an#emotion;#
if#he#is#not#afraid#of#snakes,#he#will#not#feel#fear#
the#opponent-process-theory#states#that#when#we#have#an#emotional#response,#it#is#always#
accompanied#by#the#opposite#emotion#as#well#
for#example,#the#joy#of#having#your#friends#throw#you#a#surprise#18th#birthday#party#will#give#
way#briefly#to#sadness#when#the#event#is#over.#
the#theory-of-cognitive-dissonance#is#proposed#by#Leon#Festinger.#
Festinger#states#that#when#we#have#two#contradictory#beliefs#we#feel#anxiety#
for#example,#we#know#how#to#fix#our#car#but#we#bring#it#to#a#mechanic#to#fix#
we#will#attempt#to#reduce#our#anxiety,#called#dissonance-reduction,#by#coming#up#with#a#reason#
for#our#actions#
we#might#justify#the#mechanic#working#on#our#car#because#we#"don't#have#the#proper#
tools"#or#"don't#have#the#time#to#fix#it.”#
- cognitive#dissonance#also#occurs#when#our#thoughts#and#behaviors#are#inconsistent#
a#person#knows#smoking#cigarettes#is#bad#for#his#health#but#smokes#them#anyway#
he#may#rationalize#this#by#saying#"he's#not#smoking#that#much"#or#"evidence#is#
contradictory#on#the#effects#of#smoking#on#health"#
Kurt#Lewin#believes#that#we#experience#anxiety#whenever#we#are#confronted#with#positive#and#
negative#conflicts#
when#we#are#confronted#by#two#positive#alternatives,#this#is#an#approach1approach'situation#
for#example,#a#boy#can#only#ask#out#one#of#two#girls#to#the#prom#but#would#enjoy#attending#
the#event#with#either#one#
an#approach1avoidance'situation#occurs#when#the#individual#must#choose#between#something#
positive#and#something#negative#
for#example,#you#really#want#to#go#swimming#but#the#water#is#very#cold#
- an#avoidance1avoidance'situation#occurs#when#the#individual#must#choose#between#two#
negative#alternatives#
for#example,#on#Saturday#morning#you#have#your#choice#of#either#mowing#the#lawn#or#
cleaning#up#you#room,#but#you'd#rather#just#go#out#with#your#friends#
#
Measuring'Emotion'
there#are#several#ways#to#measure#emotion#physiologically#
heart#rate#increases,#blood#pressure#rises,#breathing#becomes#faster,#and#pupils#dilate#
in#addition,#brain#wave#patterns#change,#which#can#be#measured#with#an#electroencephalograph-
(EEG)-
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