46-339 Chapter Notes -Explicit Memory, Episodic Memory, Sensory Memory

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Windsor
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3390
Professor
Unit 2 Notes: Memory
Process of Memory
implicit memory--our recollection of information that was not consciously encoded
and stored
explicit memory is our recollection of information that has been consciously encoded,
stored and retrieved
includes three components:
encoding--processing information and integrating it into our existing storehouse of
memory
storage--the process of keeping information in memory
retrieval--recalling information from memory when it is required
for these processes to be activated, the organism must attend to certain information
for further processing--called attention
information is moved into memory is through:
rote rehearsal which involves repeating the information over and over again
elaborative rehearsal in which information is made meaningful by linking it to
information already in our long term memory stores
the serial position effect involves both the primacy and recency effect
the primacy effect--words at the beginning of a list will be remembered better because
more rehearsal is taking place
the recency effect--words at the end of a list will be remembered best of all because
they are most recently placed in memory
(insert diagram of the three stages of memory here)
Stage 1: Sensory Memory
Stage 1-- sensory memory involves storing information for a very short period of time:
iconic (visual) memory lasts about one half second.
echoic (auditory) memory last about three to five seconds
the initial tests of sensory memory involved looking at visual display like this for a
fraction of a second and then being asked to recall all the letters:
F B Y
H T Q
N K P
subjects could consistently only remember about four letters
this is called the whole-report method
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George Sperling used the same 3 x 3 matrix but played a high, medium or low tone
when the letters were flashed--these tones corresponded to the top, middle or bottom
line of letters
F B Y
H T Q
N K P
subjects consistently remembered all three letters, regardless of what tone was played
during the experiment
Sperling’s method is called the partial-report method
this helped to establish nine items as the capacity for sensory memory
the whole-report method failed because, by the time subjects reported four letters, the
rest of the letters had faded from memory
the partial-report method eliminated this memory fade
Stage 2: Short Term Memory
Stage 2-- short term memory, or” working memory”, briefly stores and processes
selected information from the sensory registers
research indicates:
STM has limited storage capacity
STM can store 5-9 chunks of information.
chunking involves grouping information into meaningful units for easier
handling, like area codes or zip codes
information in STM is forgotten in 15-20 seconds if it is not rehearsed
phonological (or acoustical) encoding is the predominant means by which
information is stored in STM
Stage 3: Long Term Memory
Stage 3-- long term memory stores information indefinitely and has an unlimited
capacity.
research has indicated specific qualities of long term memory:
some psychologists believe the information is never truly forgotten but that it just
cannot be accessed in LTM
some psychologists believe that our memories about specific events are fused with
our hopes, expectations and unique perspectives so that they are often quite
different from the actual event
(insert diagram of long term memory here)
Types of Memory
there are four types of LTM:
procedural memory--contains learned associations between stimuli and responses,
like how to tie your shoes or drive a car
semantic memory--stores general facts and information, like information you need
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Document Summary

Process of memory implicit memory--our recollection of information that was not consciously encoded and stored: explicit memory is our recollection of information that has been consciously encoded, stored and retrieved includes three components: Encoding--processing information and integrating it into our existing storehouse of memory. Storage--the process of keeping information in memory. Retrieval--recalling information from memory when it is required. For these processes to be activated, the organism must attend to certain information for further processing--called attention information is moved into memory is through: Rote rehearsal which involves repeating the information over and over again. Stage 1: sensory memory: stage 1-- sensory memory involves storing information for a very short period of time: Iconic (visual) memory lasts about one half second. Echoic (auditory) memory last about three to five seconds the initial tests of sensory memory involved looking at visual display like this for a fraction of a second and then being asked to recall all the letters:

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