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Chapter pg. 11

Biology 2382B Chapter Notes - Chapter pg. 11: Periplasm, Isoleucine, Mesosome

Course Code
BIOL 2382B
Jessica Kelly
pg. 11

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Cell Biology
Page 11.
Prokaryotic cells (bacteria)
o single closed compartment that is
o surrounded by the plasma membrane,
o lack a defined nucleus,
o have relatively simple internal organization
Comprise 5th and 6th kingdoms:
5. Eubacteria (true bacteria) single celled bacteria
a. Cyanobacteria or blue-algae (unicellular/filamentous chains of cells)
6. Archaea ^ similar structures
Eukaryotic cells
o contain defined membrane bound nucleus and
o extensive internal membranes that enclose the organelles
Region of cell lying between the plasma membrane and the nucleus is the cytoplasm
o Made of cytosol
(Water, dissolved ions, small molecules, and proteins) + organelles
Euka include the first 4 kingdoms:
1. Plants
2. Animals
3. Fungi
4. Protists
The single circular DNA genome is extensively folded, considered as central region of
Most ribosomes are found in the DNA-free regions
Some bacteria have invagination of cell membrane mesosome associated with DNA
synthesis and secretin of proteins
The cell wall adjacent to the external side of the plasma membrane: for protection and
maintenance of shape
o Composed of:
Layers of peptidoglycan (complex protein)
o E. Coli have a thin inner cell wall and an outer membrane separated from the
inner cell by the periplasmic space
Pages 398-400
Immunofluorescence microscopy allows for localization of specific proteins within
fixed cells, providing a static image of their location
Chimeric proteins consisting of a protein of interest covalently linked to a naturally
fluorescent protein (enable biologists to view movements of individual proteins in live
Light and electron microscopy revealed that all eukaryotic cells contain a similar
repertoire of membrane-limited compartments termed organelles.
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