Foods and Nutrition 1021 Chapter 4: Chapter 4- The Carbohydrates- Sugar, Starch, Glycogen, & Fibre

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Western University
Foods and Nutrition
Foods and Nutrition 1021
Jennifer Broxterman

Chapter 4: Carbohydrates Sugar, Starch, Glycogen, Fibre Introduction to Carbohydrates CHO is the bodys first choice for energy needs. It is used as glucose or stored as glycogen. Dietary Sources: o Grains, beanslegumes, milk and alternatives (milk, yogurt, but not cheese), fruits, starchy vegetables (potatoes, peas, corn, squash), sweetsdesserts (cookies, chips, ice cream). Each serving contains 15 grams of CHO. Simple Carbohydrates: o Sugars (12 polymers) o Monosaccharides: Can only use glucose currency exchange Glucose: Blood sugar, Essential CHO (main source of energy for brain and nerves), excreted in the urine by diabetics. Galactose: Part of lactose (milk sugar); freed during digestion Fructose: Fruit sugar; sweeter than sugar o Disaccharides: Sucrose: glucose + fructose, table sugar (beet or cane) Lactose: glucose + galactose, sugar in milk, poorly digested by some people Maltose: glucose + glucose, malt sugar, in germinating seeds, important in brewing Figure 4.2 o Sugar alcohols: Sorbitol, Mannitol Complex Carbohydrates o Starch Fibre 3 or more polymers Starch: excellent source of glucose, storage form of glucose in plants Fibre: indigestible parts of plant foods, cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, gums, mucilages, nonpolysaccharides lignin. Glycogen: storage form of CHO in liver and muscles in humans and animals o Oligosaccharides (39 polymers): maltooligosaccharides: maltodextrins
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