Geography 2010A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Hudson Bay Lowlands, Trans-Pacific Partnership, Cultural Globalization

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Geography 2010 Textbook Notes
Pages 3-16 – Chapter 1
Diverse political agendas and economic strengths have ensured that Canada is a group of 6
different regions with different physical geography, location, resources and historical development
Canada’s place in the world economy depends on exports, especially with the US by in
increasing numbers with Asian economies. This is partially because of the expanding Asian
markets and partially because of the initial slow recovery of the US from the financial crisis and
thereby decreased imports from Canada.
Western Canada has benefited greatly from the realignment of world power towards Asia while
the manufacturing belt in Central Canada has lost the most
Geography as a Discipline
Geography contributes to the shaping of a regional identity and consciousness which are
products of a regions physical geography, historical events and economic situation
Regional Geography
Regional geography: study of a particular part of the world
There is a greater importance of human geography because the physical environment is affected
by the culture, economic, or political events around them
Regional self-interest is a regional identity and consciousness
Canada’s Geographic Regions
A regional geographer selects the critical physical and human characteristics that logical divide a
large spatial unit into series of regions and that allows it to be differentiated from adjacent regions
oTowards the margins of that regions, the characteristics become less distinct
Boundaries between regions are transition zones, not limits
Six geographic regions: Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Ontario, Western Canada, British Columbia,
Territorial North
These areas are divided into manageable segments that balance the regions based on
geographic size, economic importance and population size.
These regions are associated with distinctive physical features, natural resources and economic
activities, reflect the political structures of Canada, facilitate the use of statistical data, are linked
to a regional identity, are associated with reoccurring regional complaints and disputes and reveal
economic strengths and culture presence.
Key economic activities
oOntario: automobile manufacturing
oQuebec: hydroelectric power
oBC: forest industry
oWestern Canada: agriculture
oAtlantic Canada: fisheries
oTerritorial North: megaprojects
The Dynamic Nature of Regions
Population increase since confederation has been 10 fold.
Ontario and Quebec house 62% of the population while western Canada houses 31%.
Sense of Place
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Deep roots in cultural and regional geography, a bonding to a region/area’s environment and
resulting institutions
This provides protection from economic and cultural globalization
Local roots stem from physical nature, human activities and institutional bodies found in the
region
Recognizes that people living in a region have collective experiences that led to shared
aspirations, concerns, goals and values. Over time, this develops into a social cohesiveness of
people in a region
A region is a synthesis of physical and human characteristics that combined with distinctiveness
from surrounding regions produce a unique character, include a sense of place and power
Fault-lines within Canada
Refer to four fractious tensions that lie deep inside Canada’s psyche.
Four fault-lines
oCentralist/decentralist view of Canada
oEnglish and French
oOld and New Canadians
oAboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Canadians
Example of fault-line, the appointment of two non-French speaking Supreme Court judges. Issues
that arose included the qualifications and the balance between French and English
Centralist/Decentralist Fault-Line
Leans most heavily on Canada’s geography and political system
Canada’s size, varied physical geography and resource base provide the stage for regional
differences and can lead to provincial-federal feuds. Ex. provincial ownership over resources etc.
1) Quarrels with Ottawa often are due to issues with transfer payments; post-secondary, health, and
social programs outstrip their financial capacity. Ottawa wants to balance its budget while the
provinces want to increase transfer payments
2) Quarrels also exist between central Canada where the majority of the national population resides
and the rest of Canada over the extensive public support/subsidies for Central Canadian
industries. This is because it is believed that economic success in central Canada will benefit the
nation as a whole
3) However, the preference of funding for central Canada is eroding as the population moves
westward to Alberta, Saskatchewan, and BC.
4) Fault-lines exist between provinces. Ex. boundaries between Quebec and Newfoundland and
Labrador. Exploitation occurs by larger provinces to smaller provinces
English-speaking/French-speaking Canadians
Only New Brunswick recognizes both official languages. Very few French-Canadians live outside
of New Brunswick and Quebec. This allowed the French to foster a culture in Quebec and NB.
Number of French Canadians decreases over time, they have declined to 21.3% in 2011
Fault-line between the cultural desire to maintain French as a viable language in a principally
speaking English nation
Aboriginal Peoples and the Non-Aboriginal Majority
Aboriginal people find themselves stuck on the margins of Canadian society. Few Aboriginal
people have found themselves on an upward social and economic path
Until the late 20th century, the Indian Act was a means for the Canadian government to control,
dominate and manage First Nation’s people and keep them restricted to their reserves. The
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reallocation of Aboriginal people and segregation ensured they had no economic foundations and
could not be self-sustaining people
In the 60’s, human rights were extended to Aboriginal people but resulted in a loss of language
and culture as well as a loss of connection to their land and parents
Aboriginal people began to gain control of their traditional land through profit sharing agreements
and other methods
Newcomers and Old-Timers
Old-timers set the economic, political and social structure of Canada
The interaction between newcomers bringing their own culture, languages and religions creates a
fault-line
Page 17-26 - Chapter 1
The Core/Periphery Theory
Core region centered on manufacturing: Quebec and Ontario
Rapidly growing region based on an expanding resource base: British Columbia and Western
Canada
Slowing region based on a declining resource base: Atlantic Canada
Resource frontier region where many resource exist but few are viable: Territorial North
The Global Economy
Capitalist world-systems theory: assumption that manufacturing cores have an inherent
advantage over resourced-based peripheries because over time, prices for manufactured goods
increase more rapidly than those for resources. This results in industrial centres becoming
increasingly richer while the peripheries become increasingly poor.
oThe global economy has reversed the above assumption because of an unprecedented
demand for energy and resources pushing the price upward while producing
manufactured goods with low-cost labour, reducing the price of those products.
Super cycle theory: prices for resources, remained at relatively high levels even through the 08/9
financial crisis because of sustained demand from rapidly industrializing countries like China,
India, Brazil and Pakistan.
oThe manufacturing oriented provinces of Canada (Quebec and Ontario) has fallen behind
the resource rich provinces in economic performance
oThe balance of power is shifting to Asia
Canada in the Global World
Canada is realigning itself to take advantage of new trade opportunities
oShift in federal policy on trade missions with China and the EU
oTrans Pacific Partnership (TPP) with Pacific Rim countries
Canadian companies are also looking to make their products attractive to the Asian market
In recognition of this trade shift, Canada seeks to take advantage of the high demand (and prices)
for agricultural products, energy and other raw material in short supply in China and other Asian
countries
Another priority is to expand infrastructure to protect Canada’s Arctic sovereignty
Canada playing a larger role on the global stage; hosting the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, G20
meeting, troops involvement in and then paying for the Afghanistan war, redefining a relationship
with the Aboriginal people of Canada; Idle no More movement. Withdrawing from the Kyoto
protocol.
Canada-US Trade Relations
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Document Summary

Diverse political agendas and economic strengths have ensured that canada is a group of 6 different regions with different physical geography, location, resources and historical development. Canada"s place in the world economy depends on exports, especially with the us by in increasing numbers with asian economies. This is partially because of the expanding asian markets and partially because of the initial slow recovery of the us from the financial crisis and thereby decreased imports from canada. Western canada has benefited greatly from the realignment of world power towards asia while the manufacturing belt in central canada has lost the most. Geography contributes to the shaping of a regional identity and consciousness which are products of a regions physical geography, historical events and economic situation. Regional geography: study of a particular part of the world. There is a greater importance of human geography because the physical environment is affected by the culture, economic, or political events around them.

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