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Chapter 11

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Geography 2153A/B
Jamie Baxter

Chapter 11: Energy 12/14/2013 12:16:00 PM ● 30 cars carry 40 people and crowd an entire street; whereas one bus will carry 40 people and takes up a lot less people ENERGY SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN CANADA ● high standard of living of Canadians partly due to our low cost of energy ● Canadians are the second largest per capita consumers of energy in the world ● In 2000, Canada’s energy consumption was 351.5 gigajoules per person ● Canadians spend more than 89 billion per year on energy ● Canadians spent 135 billion in 2004 to heat and cool their homes ● Energy sector employs 290,400 people – major role in Canada’s economy ● During the past four decades, the energy sector contributed 6-10% of Canada’s total GDP ● Energy consumption per dollar of GDP has been declining since the 1974 oil crisis because of (1) energy conservation practices and improved energy efficient technologies have reduced the energy intensity of the economy (2) energy consumption has increased at a slower rate than the GDP, causing a decline in the energy consumption per dollar ● Canadian primary energy production by sector: crude oil has always been number 1 in the past, now natural gas is number one and crude oil is second; coal and electricity has been fluctuating evenly throughout the years but now electricity is number three over coal which is number 4 ● Changes in primary types of energy consumed in Canada: crude oil is number one and always has been number 1, natural gas is number 2, coal and electricity has been fluctuating but electricity is now number 3, and coal follows in last ● 41% of worldwide electricity comes from coal – 21% comes from natural gas – 16% comes from hydroelectricity – 14% comes from nuclear power – 6% comes from oil – the remaining comes from solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal ● 63.1% of electricity produced in Canada comes from hydroelectricity, 17.4% comes from coal, 14.8% comes from nuclear, 4.1% comes from natural gas, 0.5% comes from internal combustion/renewables ● industry demand grew by 23% between 1990 and 2008 ● “Other Manufacturing” uses the most energy by industry; then Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction; then Petroleum Refining, then Construction, then Agriculture, then Forestry, then Chemicals/Fertilizers, then Cement, then Aluminum, then Iron and Steal, and then Paper industry ● Canadian Energy Consumption by Sector: Industrial uses 47% of Canadian energy, Transportation uses 25%, Residential uses 14%, Commercial/Institutional uses 14% ● World Fuel Consumption: Coal has always been number one, but as of yet, oil has been number one for per capita consumption, and coal is coming in second, natural gas is number three, hydro-elect is fourth, then nuclear then BP-Other HOW DO WE USE ENERGY? PRIMARY ENERGY: energy as it is first produced – the total requirements for all uses of energy, including energy used by the final consumer, energy in transforming one energy form to another, and for energy used by suppliers in providing energy to the market – includes all used from extraction and production to final use by consumer – fossil fuel hydrocarbons, electricity from nuclear and hydroelectric power plants SECONDARY ENERGY: produced by processing primary energy, such as electricity produced from coal, and gas from crude oil – energy used by the consumer to heat their homes, etc. This secondary sector comprises the the residential, agricultural, and commercial/institutional, industrial, and transportation sectors – greenhouse gas emissions from secondary energy has increased by 24 percent NET USEFUL ENERGY: the useable amount of energy available from an energy source over its lifetime – to determine the net useful energy of an energy resource, all losses are subtracted, including those automatically wasted (second energy law) and those wasted in the discovery, processing, and transportation phases – the concept of net useful energy is important in understanding why governments, utilities, and private-sector suppliers are exploring new incentive and regulatory regimes CANADA’S ENERGY RESOURCES FOSSIL FUELS – OIL: oil is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, those containing hydrogen, carbon, and other elements – most oil is found in sedimentary rock located deep below the surface of the land and sea floor – oil has a high energy value per unit of volume – fossil fuel combustion releases gases that contribute to climate change, acid precipitation, and photochemical smog -Canada consumes 2,209,000 barrels of oil per day in 2012 -Heavy Oil (Conventional): oil deposits in the form of shale and oil sand – are found near Earth’s surface -Oil Shale: rock that contains a solid mixture of hydrocarbon compounds called kerogen – once crushes, and heated, kerogen vapour is condensed to form heavy slow flowing shale oil – oil shale is more expensive and difficult to extract and process than conventional oil, and its net useful energy yield is lower -Oil Sands: heavier; crude oil deposits that consist of sand, bitumen, mineral-rich clays, and water -Bitumen: a black oil rich in sulphur, requires upgrading to synthetic oil or dilution with lighter hydrocarbons -Canada is home to the world’s largest known deposits of oil sands -the net useful energy yield from oil sands is lower than for conventional oil because more energy is required to extract and process bitumen than conventional crude oil resources -2 tonnes of oil sands must be extracted to produce one barrel of oil -large amounts of water is also needed -impacts of oil includes: landscape changes, rivers must be diverted, wetlands drained, and all vegetation and non-oil bearing material removed -oils sands processes releases GHG emissions/smog production: nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, and VOCs – in 2005, oil sands emissions emitted 70,000 tonnes of NOx, 147,000 tonnes of SO2, and 59,000 tonnes of VOCs -over 40% of the increase in GHG emissions in Canada between 2003 and 2010 will be the direct result of the new oil sands development -1958-1997 total energy consumption increased by 313% due to oil sands -Spills: 1989 Exxon Valdez on the Alaska shoreline, 1996 Sea Empress in Welsh coast, 2004 Terra Nova in offshore NL, and tanker spills are very serious but only account for 6% of oil released in marine environments FO
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