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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Note - Psychological Health.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B

Chapter 2 Note: Psychological Health Psychological Health – mental health, defined either negatively as the absence of illness or positively as the presence of wellness - Contributes to every dimension of wellness - Broad concept - Our capacity to think, feel and behave in ways that contribute to our ability to enjoy life and manage challenges - With good psychological health people have a sense of emotional and spiritual well being that values, fairness, culture, dignity and interpersonal connection - Positive definition psychological health as the presence of wellness – is a more ambitious outlook that encourages us to fulfill our own potential Abraham Maslow (1960s) - Wrote a book called “Toward a Psychology of Being” describes an ideal of mental health - Suggested that people have a hierarchal of needs Self-Actualization – the highest level of growth in Maslow’s Hierarchy (an ideal to strive for)  Realism – Self actualized people are realistic and are able to cope with the world as it exists without demanding that it be different; they know what they can change and what they can not  Acceptance – Self acceptance requires a positive self concept and an appropriately high level of self esteem, self acceptance also means being tolerant of your own imperfections Self-Concept – the ideas, feelings and perceptions people have about themselves; also called self image Self Esteem – satisfaction and confidence in yourself; the valuing of yourself as a person  Autonomy – is physical, social, emotional and intellectual independence, autonomous people are inner directed, have an internal locus of control and a high level of self efficacy Autonomy – independence; the sense of being self-directed Inner Directed – guided in behaviour by an inner set of rules Other Directed – guided on behaviour by the values and expectations of other  Authenticity – the quality of genuineness (Ex. autonomous people respond in a genuine, spontaneous way to whatever happens, without pretense or self- conscious  Capacity for Intimacy – physical and emotional intimacy, the ability to be open to the pleasure of physical contact and the satisfaction of being close to others  Creativity – renewed appreciation of the world informs a persons creativity Normality – the psychological characteristics attributed to the majority of people in a population at a given time (psychological health is not the same as psychological normality) Erikson’s Stages of Development Age Conflict Important Task People Birth -1year Trust vs. Mistrust Mother or In being fed and comforted, primary developing the trust that caregiver others will respond to your needs 1-3 years Autonomy vs. Parents In toilet training, locomotion Shame & Self- and exploration, learning self Doubt control without losing the capacity for assertiveness 3-6 years Initiative vs. Guilt Family In playful talking and locomotion, developing a conscience (based on parental prohibitions) that is not too inhibiting 6-12 years Industry vs. Neighborhood In school and playing with Inferiority and School peers, learning the value of accomplishment and perseverance without feeling inadequate Adolescence Identity vs. Identity Peers Developing a stable sense of Confusion who you are – your needs, abilities, interpersonal style and values Young Intimacy vs. Close friends, Learning to live and share Adulthood Isolation sex partners intimately with others, often in sexual relationships Middle Generativity vs. Work Doing things for others, Adulthood Self Absorption associates, including parenting and civic children, activities community Older Integrity vs. Humankind Affirming the value of life and Adulthood Despair its ideals  Life is more interesting for people who continue evolving into more distinct individuals, rather than being rigidly controlled by their pasts  Identity reflects a lifelong process and it changes as a person develops new relationships and roles Identity Crisis – internal confusion about who you are Value – criteria for judging what is good and bad, which underlie a person’s moral decisions and behaviour Living According to Values Means: - Considering your options carefully before making a choice - Choosing between options without succumbing to outside pressures that oppose your values - Making a choice and acting on it rather than doing nothing Spiritual Wellness  Spirituality provides an ethical path to personal fulfillment that includes connectedness with the self, others, and a higher or larger reality  Spiritual Wellness can make you more aware of your personal values and can help clarify them  Associated with longer life expectancy, reduced risk of disease, faster recovery and improved emotional health: Social Support – attending religious services or participating in volunteer organizations helps people feel that they are apart of a community with similar values and promotes social connectedness Healthy Habits – encourages healthy eating and behaviours Positive Attitude – spirituality can give people a sense of meaning and purpose in life, which creates a more positive attitude and helps them cope with life challenges Moments of Relaxation – spiritual practices such as prayer, meditation etc. can reduce stress by eliciting the relaxation response Developing a Positive Self Concept 1) Integration – an integrated self concept is one that you have made for yourself, not someone else’s image of you or a mask that doesn’t quite fit 2) Stability – stability depends on the integration of the self and its freedom and contradictions In contrast, the demoralized person gives up, reinforcing, the negative self-concept and setting in motion a cycle of bad self-concept and failure. People who are demoralized tend to use all or nothing thinking. They overgeneralize from negative events. They over look the positive and jump into negative conclusions, minimizing their own successes and magnifying the successes of others. Demoralized people can be tenacious about their negative beliefs – so tenacious that they make their beliefs come true in a self-fulfilling prophecy Cognitive Distortion – a pattern of negative thinking that makes events seem worse than they are (Ex. focusing on negatives, expecting the worst, over generalizing, minimizing, blaming others, believing you’re the cause of everything, thinking in black and white, magnifying events) Self -Talk – the statements a person makes to himself or herself Defense Mechanisms – A mental device for coping with conflict or anxiety Defense & Coping Mechanisms Mechanism Description Example Projection Reacting to unacceptable A student who dislikes his roommate feels inner impulses as if they that the roommate dislikes him. were from outside the self Repression Expelling from awareness The child of an alcoholic, neglectful father an unpleasant feeling, idea, remembers him as a giving, loving person. or memory Denial Refusing to acknowledge to A person believes that smoking cigarettes yourself what you really won't harm her because she's young and know to be true healthy. Passive- Expressing hostility toward A person tells a co-worker, with whom she aggressive someone by being covertly competes for project assignments, that behaviour uncooperative or passive she'll help him with a report but then never follows through. Displacement Shifting your feelings about A student who is angry with one of his a person to another person professors returns home and yells at one of his housemates. Rationalization Giving a false, acceptable reasAnshyhyoutngrmealneasidnessuntaocattablea dorm party, telling himself he'd be bored. Substitution Deliberately replacing a A student having a difficult frustrating goal with one time passing courses in that is more attainable chemistry decides to change his major from biology to economics. Humour Finding something funny in A student whose bicycle has been stolen unpleasant situations thinks how surprised the thief will be when he or she starts downhill and discovers the brakes don't work. Pessimism is not just a symptom of everyday depression but an important report and cause. Pessimists not only expect repeated failure and rejection but also accept it as deserved. Pessimists do not see themselves as capable of success, and they irrationally diminish any evidence of their own accomplishments Assertiveness – Expression that is forceful but not hostile Intermittent Explosive Disorder – a condition when anger is explosive or misdirected PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS: Psychological disorders are generally the result of many factors. Genetic differences, which underlie differences in how the brain processes information and experience, are known to play an important role in certain disorders. Anxiety Disorders  Most common psychological disorder among Canadians Anxiety – a feeling of fear that is not directed toward any definite threat Simple(Specific) Phobia: - A persistent and excessive fear of a specific object, activity or situation - The most common and mist understandable anxiety disorder. - Simple phobias are believed to result from a combination of biological factors and life events - A special kind of simple phobia is fear of blood injections, or seeing injured people - These fears usually come from a tendency to faint or nauseous - Best treated without drugs Social Phobia: - An excessive fear of being observed in public; speaking in public is the most common example - The 6.7% of Canadians with social phobia fear humiliation or embarrassment while being observed by others - People with these kind of fears may not continue in school as far as they could and may restrict themselves to lower paying jobs where they do not have to come into contact with new people Panic Disorder: - A syndrome of severe anxiety attacks accompanied by physical symptoms - People with panic disorder experience sudden unexpected surges in anxiety such as; rapid and
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