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Chapter 3

Health Sciences 1001A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Canadian Mental Health Association, Fad Diet, Mood Disorder


Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HS 1001A/B
Professor
Shauna Burke
Chapter
3

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Chapter 3 Psychological Health
Lecture 4 September 23 2010
Required Reading: Chapter 3, pp. 63-92
Psychosocial Health
Encompasses the mental, emotional, social, and spiritual
dimensions of health
What is Psychological Health?
It is NOT/ CANNOT be:
Defined as Psychological normality
o Normal = close to average
o Psychosocial diversity is valuable, don’t have the same normal for psychological health
Determined on the basis of symptoms alone
o E.g., anxiety sadness
Determined from the way people look (people can hide their emotions, its not easy to tell if
someone is suffering psychologically)
It IS:
The absence of [mental] sickness
o Negative definition
o Narrow
The presence of [mental] wellness
o Positive definition
o Broad
Fulfillment of human potential
o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
Described an ideal of mental health (self-actualization)
Studies individuals who lived “full” lives (psychologically healthy people)
Advanced a hierarchy of needs in order of urgency
o Physiological needs = most urgent
When urgent needs are satisfied, we move up the pyramid, less urgent needs take priority
Those who make it to the top of the needs hierarchy achieve self-actualization
Self- actualized individuals = psychologically health individuals
Characterized by several specific qualities:
o Realism: people are realistic, they have a realistic view of the world around them and
themselves, they don’t try to change the things they can’t, they can cope with world
around them without demanding it to be different
o Acceptance: accept themselves for who they are, have a positive self concept/self-
esteem, value self worth
o Autonomy: direct themselves and own behaviour, are not afraid to be themselves, are
comfortable being who they are, tend to have an internal locus of control, have high
level of self- efficacy

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o Capacity for intimacy: able to give love and receive love, able to have intimate
relationships physically and emotionally, able to share feelings and thoughts without
fear of rejection
o Creativity: being open minded, open to new experiences, don’t fear unknown, not just
artistically creative
Can We Reach Self- Actualization?
An ideal to strive for
Cannot redo the past (e.g., childhood past experiences, etc.)
Must concentrate on successfully meeting current challenges
Characteristics of a Psychologically Healthy Individual:
1) Feel comfortable about themselves; experience the full range of human emotions but are not
overcome by them(people who are pscychologically healthy do experience negative emotions
but they don’t let it get the best of them)
2) Interact well with other; are able to give and receive love; have satisfying relationships (people
can be comfortable with themselves with not always being in the spotlight but interacting with
others and having good relationships)
3) Able to meet the demands of life; respond appropriately to problems, accept responsibility,
establish realistic goals(Its about dealing with the problems in a positive healthy manner)
American National Mental Health Association added these
4) Striking a balance in all aspects of your life
5) Resilience the ability to recapture a sense of psychological wellness within a reasonable time
after encountering a difficult situation
Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
Self- Esteem (SE)
Critical component of psychological wellness
Increase SE may offset self-destructive behaviours (e.g., unhealthy ‘fad’ diets), (feeling
comfortable with who you are in your own skin prevents you to go through destructive
behaviours)
Increase SE means finding a balance between your “idealized self” and where you are now
(being okay with who you are but still having a goal to reach, what you want to be)
Foundation of SE can be traced to childhood
People are eventually responsible for enhancing their own self- esteem(own responsibility for
taking care of yourself and your self-esteem)
Hardiness
Works with SE to ensure psychological health
Exists when a person consistently show 3 important traits:
1) A high level of commitment to something or someone in some aspect of your life
2) A sense of control (take control and responsibility for who they are and orchestrating things
in their lives)
3) Welcome challenge (take change and use it to shape a your life, taking it in a positive
manner)

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Psychological Disorders:
Many people have a less than optimal level of psychological health
Most of us will either have emotional problems ourselves or know someone who is experiencing
them
Result from many factors (e.g., genetic differences, learning and life events), (identical twins can
have different psychological disorders even though they are exactly the same)
Mood Disorders
DEPRESSION:
“An emotional state characterized by feelings of sadness, melancholy, dejection, worthlessness,
emptiness, and hopelessness that are inappropriate and out of proportion to reality.”
Mosby (1997)
o Longer lasting than feelings of hopelessness and sadness
Becomes an illness when these feelings are severe, last for several weeks, last for several weeks,
and being to interfere with one’s work and social life(some people suffer for years and years
before they get treatment if they even get treatment at all)
Depression:
Any of the following may be indications of depression:
o Feeling worthless, helpless, or hopeless
o Sleeping more or less than usual
o Eating more or less than usual/ weight loss
o Having difficulty concentrating or making decisions
o Loss of interest in doing usually activities (a sign for people around the individual)
o Decrease sex drive
o Avoiding other people
o Overwhelming feeling of sadness and grief
o Feeling unreasonably guilty
o Low energy, feeling very tired
o Thoughts of death or suicide
CMHA, 2007
Depression:
At any given time, almost 3 million Canadians suffer from depression
Women are nearly twice as likely to be clinically depressed
Only approx. 35% of depressed people seek help (8% of adults will experience major depression
in their lives)
Individuals with depression commonly have a number of compounding problems (e.g., family
problems, difficulty with social relationships ), (it can be a genetic or chemical component for
people with clinical depression)
Depression is a common factor related to most suicides
Types of Depression:
Major Depression:
Primary or endogenous depression- begins for no apparent reason and is likely caused by
changes in brain chemistry
Secondary or “exogenous” depression- develops after periods of difficulty (e.g., divorce, loss of
job)
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