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Shauna Burke (125)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Weight Management

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 4: Weight Management 1 Weight Management: • Canada: 65% (think), 37% (are) overweight, 15% (think), 24% (are) obese - > doubled b/w 1978-2004 • 2021: 50% women, 70% men • fat-free mass: non-fat tissues-bone, water, muscle, connective tissue, teeth • body fat: 1. subcutaneous: 80%, beneath skin, protective against diseases, excess energy intake 2. visceral: 10%-20% (men), 5%0-8% (women), embedded within mesentery (tissue connects intestines to abdominal wall), risk for cardiovascular disease 3. ectopic: within organs- heart, liver, brain, increases risk for metabolic syndrome, heart disease, stroke • 1 kg=7000 calories • percent body fat: proportion of total body’s weight that is fat - > ex. 2 women=60 kg, 2 different percent body fats energy balance: energy in=energy out; body uses energy to maintain vital body functions, • digest food, fuel physical activity - > positive= excess calories stored as fat - > negative= lose stored fat overweight: body weight falls above recommended range for good health • • obesity: excess of nonessential body fat; BMI=30+, PBF=25%+ (men), 33% (women) • height-weight charts=inaccurate • BMI: measure of relative body weight, takes height into account, correlated w/ more direct measures of body fat; body weight (kg) / square of height (m) - > inaccurate: short people, muscular athletes, older adults w/ limited mass - > 18/5-24.9 (average), 25+ (overweight), 25-29.99 (pre-obese), 30-34.99 (obese I), 35-39.99 (obese II), 40+ (obese III), 17.5 or lower=underweight - body composition analysis: percent body fat 1. hydrostatic weighing: weighed underwater, PBF=body density (muscle=higher density, fat=lower density) 2. bod pod: pressure sensors determine amount of air displaced by someone’s body Chapter 4: Weight Management 2 3. skin-fold: measure fat thickness under skin 4. electrical impedance analysis: electrodes attached, harmless electrical current transmitted (electrode-electrode) 5. scanning: CT, MRI, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, duel-photon absorptiometry, infrared reactance health risks of excess body fat: • obesity: doubles mortality rates, reduce life expectancy (10-20 years), soon by 5 years • 50%-100% increased death rate: unhealthy cholesterol & triglyceride levels, impaired heart function, hypertension, cancer, impaired immune function, skin problems, back pain, impotence, breathing problems, complications w/ pregnancy, menstrual irregularities, urine leakage, surgery, psychological disorders • diabetes: disruption of normal metabolism, buildup of glucose in bloodstream; kidney problems, nerve damage, retinal damage, circulation problems, heart attack, stroke, hypertension; 246 million worldwide • overall health: blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fat distribution, tobacco use • Nurses’Health Study (1976-): 80% increase in coronary heart disease • (2006) half million people in 50s, slightly overweight= 40% higher to die within next decade • men & post-menopausal women: upper region, abdominal (apple) - > high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, cancer, metabolic syndrome, death • postmenopausal women: hips, buttocks, thighs (pear) • waist circumference: disease - > 102+ cm (men), 88+ cm (women) • body image: representation, perceptions, images, thoughts, attitudes, emotions about body • female athlete triad: 3 interrelated disorders: abnormal eating patterns, excessive exercising, lack of menstrual periods (amenorrhea), decreased bone density (premature osteoporosis) Factors Contributing to Excess Body Fat: Chapter 4: Weight Management 3 • Genetic: - nutrigenomics: how nutrients/genes interact, how genetic variations cause people to respond differently to nutrients in food - 25%-40%= genetic contribution, 600 genes - both parents obese, children=80% increase, 1 parent obese=40% increase - adoptees=stronger biological link than adoption - tendency to develop obesity=inherited, expression of tendency=environmental (ex. diet, exercise) • Physiological: - metabolism: sum of all vital processes, food energy & nutrients=made to be used by body - resting metabolic rate (RMR): calories burnt while body is at rest - > ex. respiration, heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure - > 50%-70% daily energy expenditure - > burn more calories at rest, take in extra calories without losing weight - factors: heredity & behaviour - exercise=maintains RMR & metabolic rate, increased muscle mass - hormones: changes at puberty, pregnancy, menopause - > leptin: carried to brain, know how big body’s fat stores are=regulate appetite & metabolic rate • fat cells: compartments inflate to hold body fat, existing filled=more created - > amount of fat (adipose tissues) body can store=function of # & size of fat cells - > overeating (adolescence & childhood) - > visceral fat: inflammatory substances, adhere to lining of blood vessels, cause insulin resistance, negative on cardiovascular health; responsible for many obesity problems - > subcutaneous fat: little/no health risks; pear=gynoid obesity, apple=android obesity • Lifestyle: - increased eating, decreased physical activity - high calorie foods, bigger portions; 25% underestimate portion size - (1981-2009): 15-19 years, overweight - > obese: boys- 14-31, girls: 14-25 Chapter 4: Weight Management 4 - reduced physical activity • Psychosocial: - distraction from feelings: ex. loneliness, anger, boredom, anxiety, shame, sadness, inadequacy - develop binge eating - socioeconomic status: obesity down=income up, men=usually higher, can be integral part of social gatherings Adopting a Healthy Lifestyle for Successful Weight Management: • diet & eating habits: daily food choices - maintain weight=burn amount of calories consumed - don’t crash diet - portion sizes: limit serving sizes of high calorie foods - energy (calorie) density: # of calories per gram of food, consumption of certain weight of food=reduces hunger & leads to feelings of fullness - low energy density=high volume & bulk, few calories, increase consumption of fruits/veggies - sugar substituted food=low-n
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