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Chapter 2

2012.02.07 - HSci 1001 Chapter 2 Review Notes.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter Two  Video Clip: company started firing people for having nicotine in their body in an attempt to reduce benefit costs and it was perfectly legal  Psychosocial Health - Encompasses the mental, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions of health o An individual’s psychosocial health cannot be determined by comparing them to the “average”, symptoms alone or the way they look o It is determined by the absence of [mental] sickness, the presence of [mental] wellness and fulfillment of human potential  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – described an ideal of mental health o Studied individuals who appeared to live “full” lives o When urgent needs are satisfied (such as physiological needs), less urgent needs take over priority o Those who make it to the top of the needs hierarchy achieve self-actualization and are considered psychologically healthy  Self-actualized individuals have the following specific qualities: o Realism - realistic people, such as learning to focus on things we are in control of o Acceptance - accept themselves and others for who they are o Autonomy - independence, they can direct themselves and are not ashamed to be themselves o Capacity for intimacy - sharing emotions and receiving intimacy o Creativity - open to new experiences and do not fear the unknown  Characteristics of a psychologically healthy individual: o Are comfortable with themselves; experience all human emotions, but are not overcome by them o Interact well with others; are able to give and receive love (have satisfying relationships) o Able to meet the demands of life; respond appropriately to problems, accept responsibility, and establish realistic goals o Striking a balance in all aspects of life o Resilience; the ability to recapture a sense of psychological wellness within a reasonable time after encountering a difficult situation o An adult identity – you have a unified sense of self, characterized by attitudes, beliefs, and ways of acting (have values and purpose in your life)  Striving for spiritual wellness is associated with greater coping skills and high levels of overall wellness o Social support – religious services/volunteer organizations help people feel as part of a community with similar values and social connectedness o Healthy habits o Positive attitude – helps cope with life’s challenges o Moments of relaxation – praying spiritual practices can reduce stress  Self-Esteem (SE) is a critical component of psychological wellness o An increase in self-esteem means finding a balance between your “idealized self” and where you are currently at and may off-set destructive behaviours  To achieve a healthy self-esteem an individual must: o Develop a positive self concept o Meet challenges to self esteem  Notice patterns of thinking to fight demoralization  Avoid focusing on the negative  Develop realistic self talk o Maintain honest communication o Learn to deal appropriately with anger  Hardiness – works with self-esteem to ensure psychological health o Exists when a personal consistently shows the following 3 traits:  A high level of commitment to something or someone  A sense of control  Welcome challenge  Many people have less than optimal level of psychological health  There is not one specific cause for psychological disorders and they result from many factors o Examples: genetic differences, learning and life events  Depression – an emotional state characterized by feelings of sadness, melancholy, dejection, worthlessness, emptiness, and hopelessness that are inappropriate and out of proportion to reality o Becomes an illness when these feelings are severe, last several weeks, and begin to interfere with an individual’s work and social life o At an given time, almost 3million Canadians suffer from depression o Women are nearly twice as likely as men to be clinically depressed o Only about 35% of depressed people seek help  Primary or “endogenous” depression – begins for no apparent reason and is likely caused by changes in brain chemistry  Secondary or “exogenous” depression – develops after periods of difficulty  Dysthymia – persistent symptoms of mild/moderate depression for two years or longer  Most effective treatments for major depression are psychotherapy and antidepressant medications o Sometimes have to try many types of antidepressants before finding an effective one  Psychotherapy – typically a form of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in which the depressed person learns how to recognize and deal with life situations in a constructive fashion  Drug Therapy – involves one or more of the four classes of antidepressive medications  Other treatments for depression include: o Physical activity o Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) – an electric shock to the bra
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