Textbook Notes (363,494)
Canada (158,383)
Shauna Burke (120)
Chapter 4

2012.02.07 - HSci 1001 Chapter 4 Review Notes.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter Four  Most weight problems are the result of lifestyle  Slow weight gain is a major cause of obesity and being overweight  Subcutaneous fat – the fat located just beneath the skin, which protects for a variety of diseases and represents a normal physiological buffer for excess energy intake (80% of all body fat is in this area)  Visceral fat – the fat imbedded within the mesentery (tissue that connects the intestines to the back of the abdominal wall) surrounding the abdominal organs o In excess, it is linked to cardiovascular diseases, and increases with age for both sexes  Ectopic fat – the fat located on or within organs, such as the liver, heart and brain o In excess, it increases the risk for metabolic syndrome  One kg of fat = 7000 calories  % body fat is more important for health than total body weight  Height-weight charts are inaccurate and an indirect measure of body fat  Body mass index (BMI) is based on the concept that weight should be proportional to height o It is inaccurate for people with different body types (Example: short and muscular)  Body composition analysis – most accurate way to evaluate body composition is to determine % body fat o Hydrostatic weighing – person is submerged and weighed under water o Bod pod – uses air instead of water o Skinfold measurements – measures the thickness under the skin at several sites o Electrical impedance analysis – electrodes are attached to the body and a harmless electrical current is transmitted from electrode to electrode (the conduction favours the path of fat free tissues over fat tissues) o Scanning procedures – accurate means of assessing body composition but require expensive equipment (Example: MRI, CT)  Excess fat in the abdominal area and waist circumference are concerns for health  Metabolic syndrome – cluster of risk factors linked to the development of type 2 diabetes  Extremely low levels of body fat (8-12% women and 3-5% men) can cause problems as well o Is linked to reproductive, circulatory, and immune system disorders o Female athlete triad – consists of 3 interrelated disorders that include abnormal eating patterns, excessive exercising, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), followed by decreased bone density  Nutrigenomics – the study of how nutrients and genes interact  Factors affecting body fat: o Metabolism and other physiological factors o Hormones (leptin) and fat cells o Lifestyle choices  Gynoid obesity – fat that is abundant on the lower body and commonly appears in women  Android obesity – fat that is abundant on the upper body and commonly appears in men  Types of weight-loss programs: o Non-commercial – don’t advocate a particular diet, but recommend seeking professional advice and are free o Commercial – provide group support, nutrition and follow up assessment (Example: Jenny Craig and Weight Watchers) o Online – a cross between self-help and online assessment for diet o Clinical – medically supervised to help people very obese  Surgeries related to obesity: o Gastric bypass surgery – modifies the gastrointestinal tract and changes the size of the stomach to reduce food intake o Roux-en Gastric bypass – the stomach is separated into two pouches, one large and one small, a Y segment is attached to the smaller pouch and it restricts food intake and absorbs less calories
More Less

Related notes for Health Sciences 1001A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.