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Chapter 14

Textbook Review Chapter 14

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B
Anita Cramp

Chapter 14 Textbook Review Drug: Any chemical other than food intended to affect the structure or function of the body. Psychoactive Drug: A chemical that can alter a person's consciousness or experience. Drug most associated with abuse. - Who uses : o Young o Male o Troubled adolescent o Thrill-seeker o Part of a dysfunctional family o Part of peer group that accepts drug use o Poor o Dating young o Those exposed in the womb o Mental health problem - Why: o Allure of excitement and illegal o Curious, rebellious, peer pressured o Imitate adult figures o To experiment o Alter mood o Escape boredom, anxiety, depression, distressing psychological problems (way to cope) o Poverty o Make money selling - Risks: o Intoxication: may act in uncharacteristic and unsafe ways; more likely to get injured, participate in unsafe sex and be involved in incidents of violence o Unexpected Side Effects: examples are nausea, constipation, paranoia, depression, heart failure or overdose o Unknown Drug Constituents: composition. Dosage and toxicity of street drug is highly variable, ½ street drugs don’t contain primary ingredient; can have dangerous results o Risks with Injection use: contamination with shared/ reused needles which can lead to infections o Legal consequences: imprisionment Intoxication: The state of being mentally affected by a chemical (literally, a state of being poisoned). Unpredictable physical and emotional changes occur. Emotions and judgement can be affected and can lead to uncharacteristic and unsafe behaviour or physical, emotional or social effects Addictive Behaviour: Any habit that has gotten out of control, resulting in a negative effect on a person's health. - Characteristics of Addictive Behaviour: o Reinforcement: behaviour produces pleasurable physical or emotional states/ relieves negative ones o Compulsion/ Craving o Loss of Control o Escalation o Negative Consequences Addiction: Psychological or physical dependence on a substance or behaviour, characterized by a compulsive desire and increasing need for the substance or behaviour, and by harm to the individual or society. Lots of theories about how addiction is due to brain chemistry, lifestyle and personaility - Developing an Addiction o Doing something pleasurable/ avoiding pain o Repetition o Dependent/ tolerance increases o Behaviour becomes central focus of persons life; behaviour no longer brings pleasure but is needed to avoid pain o Not every pleasurable activity we do will lead to addiction - Characteristics of People with Addictions o Substitute to a healthier coping strategy o Unable to manage their lives o People who have trouble dealing with stress o Have a genetic predisposition to addiction o Have addictive disorders/ addictive behaviour o Problems with impulse control and self-regulation - Examples of Addictive Behaviours o Gambling o Exercising o Work o Sex/ love o Buying/ shopping o Internet o Drugs Habituation: Similar to addiction, involving the routine use of a substance, but without the level of compulsion or increasing need that characterizes addiction. Pharmacy: The art of compounding drugs from various substances. Pharmacology: The science and study of drugs. Substance Abuse: A maladaptive pattern of using any substance that persists despite adverse social, psychological, or medical consequences. The pattern may be intermittent, with or without tolerance and physical dependence. - Characteristics: (one of the following) o Recurrent drug use resulting in failure to fulfil major responsibilities o Recurrent drug use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (i.e. before driving) o Recurrent drug related legal problems o Continued drug use despite social or interpersonal problems cause by the drug Physical Dependence: The result of physiological adaptation that occurs in response to the frequent presence of a drug; typically associated with tolerance and withdrawal. Substance Dependence: A cluster of cognitive, behavioural, and physiological symptoms that occur in someone who continues to use a substance despite suffering significant substance- related problems, leading to considerable impairment or distress; also known as addiction. - Characteristics: (3 or more of the following with a year) o Developing a tolerance o Experiencing withdrawal o Taking substance in large amounts over a longer period than was intended o Expressing desire to stop/ cut down
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