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Chapter 11

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1002A/B

Chapter 11  Canada transformed:  The change in social, demographic and economic result in changing in Canadian  families­­­­people is delaying marriage ­having less kids – delaying childbirth.  Children from more advantaged families perform better in the school:    Parents who delayed having kids are usually better educated and better income family  have and it’s the opposite for parents who have their children early.  Children with two parents:  favorable behavior, psychological and school outcome  than Children with single parent or separated parents even when the economic  conditions of the family are controlled.  1/3 of marriages end up with divorce and children who face disruption in there  families are more likely to leave home earlier and never go back home. Adolescents who parent devoiced are more likely to stay unmarried or end up divorced In the past quarter century the income inequality between families with children are worsen and 22% of approximately 1.4 million children in Canada are living in low- income families. Socioeconomic status has direct impact on higher levels of achievement and superior  academic focus.     Young children who live in low income and single parent are usually facing more  challenges than older children and children with two parents.     Children in poor families have higher rate of emotional disorders and they don’t do  well in school. Also, they may experience a lower social acceptance.  ½ of the children who live with single parent live below the cut­off.. Children in low­income families are different than other children in ways  affecting them directly and indirectly like  • Socialization  • Education  • they are in the top 10% who  have problem with hearing, speech  ,vision etc . • They are more likely to live poorly and in bad environment fill with  drug. Socioeconomics status has indirect impact on achievement: higher  socio­economic status = lower parental depression = lower family  dysfunction = lowering the amount of hostile parenting = better  academic focus.   Changing Patterns of Socialization  Children in the age before school used to only socialize and learn from  their parents, but now with media, caregivers, children peers all of that  give them the opportunity to learn and expose to values and ideas that  children half century ago used to not know till school.  The Aggression Trap:  Aggression in school is affecting children and creating stress in school. In Canada:  15% of student’s report that there peers abuse and 10% of students in other countries  being bullied. Canadian Council asked 6000 students between 5-16 y and 6% reported that they bully other students in last 6 weeks and 20% reported that they have been involved in as either bully or victim more than once during school. Children who don’t learn the alternative to physical aggression during their early life are more likely to be • Hyperactive • Inattentive • Less likely to respond when others need help • Often rejected or isolated by their peers • More likely to leave school before graduation • More disruptive in school. • More likely to have serious accidents • More likely to engage in violent behavior • More likely to get bad grades According to Tremblay:  Following aggrisve children into their adulthood has huge negative consequences on  their children, mate and communities   they live in. these consequences include early  parenthood, unemployment and poverty . From this perspective Tremblay “ failure to  teach children to regulate their violent behavior during their early years leads to  poverty much more clearly than poverty leads to violence”.  Study by scholars from Guelph and Toronto analyzed data from the National  Longitudinal survey of children and youth found that   Children who are less committed to school are more likely to be involved in  aggressive behavior. Children who dislike school and don’t want to keep going, have bad grades are 3  times more likely to be involved in aggressive acts.  Social relationship that students  made in school plays a role in being involved in aggressive acts. Children are more  likely to be involved in aggressive behavior when they feel • Unsafe in school  • Being bulled by others (verbally and physically)  • Adults who involve in delinquent behaviors have low education desire and  think that their teachers hate them and don’t treat them fairly. But school and  social factor isn’t the only thing that leads to aggressive.  • Risk factor and family environment associated with aggressive  • The more risk factors children face, they more they engage in aggressive  behavior    Demographic change  • Changing the source of immigration • Increasing linguistic diversity  • Growing number of aboriginal children • Survival of low­birth weight babes  • High number of children with special needs • Diversity in language  all of these factors poses a challenges to public school.   One­tenth of students receive some form of education because of learning  disabilities, emotional or behavior problems. Children who live in low­income  families are more likely to receive special education  (24%) of children who get special education have a parent who didn’t finish  high school and they are more likely to be boys than girls.    Aboriginal and first nation learner People of aboriginal ancestry make up 4.4 of Canadian population and the  birth rate is increasing. The fist nation population in Canada is young growing.  And moving forward band- centered education. The number of students studying in band- operated elementary and high school is increasing ( 61%) (39%) of the children are enrolled in public schools. the decline in attendance at federal and provincial schools signals a change in the role of the band in first nation education. While this trend is positive in terms of band self- determination and identity. Graduation rate for aboriginal and first nations are well below levels for the rest of Canada. Provincial public schools are much less successful than their non- aboriginal classmates. One of the factors that may account for the low is the mismatch between the world views of aboriginal students and the
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