The change in social, demographic and economic result in changing in Canadian
familiespeople is delaying marriage having less kids – delaying childbirth.
Children from more advantaged families perform better in the school:
Parents who delayed having kids are usually better educated and better income family
have and it’s the opposite for parents who have their children early.
Children with two parents: favorable behavior, psychological and school outcome
than Children with single parent or separated parents even when the economic
conditions of the family are controlled.
1/3 of marriages end up with divorce and children who face disruption in there
families are more likely to leave home earlier and never go back home.
Adolescents who parent devoiced are more likely to stay unmarried or end up
In the past quarter century the income inequality between families with children are
worsen and 22% of approximately 1.4 million children in Canada are living in low-
Socioeconomic status has direct impact on higher levels of achievement and superior
Young children who live in low income and single parent are usually facing more
challenges than older children and children with two parents.
Children in poor families have higher rate of emotional disorders and they don’t do
well in school. Also, they may experience a lower social acceptance.
½ of the children who live with single parent live below the cutoff..
Children in lowincome families are different than other children in ways
affecting them directly and indirectly like
• they are in the top 10% who have problem with hearing, speech
,vision etc .
• They are more likely to live poorly and in bad environment fill with
Socioeconomics status has indirect impact on achievement: higher
socioeconomic status = lower parental depression = lower family
dysfunction = lowering the amount of hostile parenting = better
academic focus. Changing Patterns of Socialization
Children in the age before school used to only socialize and learn from
their parents, but now with media, caregivers, children peers all of that
give them the opportunity to learn and expose to values and ideas that
children half century ago used to not know till school.
The Aggression Trap:
Aggression in school is affecting children and creating stress in school. In Canada:
15% of student’s report that there peers abuse and 10% of students in other countries
being bullied. Canadian Council asked 6000 students between 5-16 y and 6% reported
that they bully other students in last 6 weeks and 20% reported that they have been
involved in as either bully or victim more than once during school.
Children who don’t learn the alternative to physical aggression during their
early life are more likely to be
• Less likely to respond when others need help
• Often rejected or isolated by their peers
• More likely to leave school before graduation
• More disruptive in school.
• More likely to have serious accidents
• More likely to engage in violent behavior
• More likely to get bad grades
According to Tremblay:
Following aggrisve children into their adulthood has huge negative consequences on
their children, mate and communities they live in. these consequences include early
parenthood, unemployment and poverty . From this perspective Tremblay “ failure to
teach children to regulate their violent behavior during their early years leads to
poverty much more clearly than poverty leads to violence”.
Study by scholars from Guelph and Toronto analyzed data from the National
Longitudinal survey of children and youth found that
Children who are less committed to school are more likely to be involved in
Children who dislike school and don’t want to keep going, have bad grades are 3
times more likely to be involved in aggressive acts. Social relationship that students
made in school plays a role in being involved in aggressive acts. Children are more
likely to be involved in aggressive behavior when they feel
• Unsafe in school
• Being bulled by others (verbally and physically)
• Adults who involve in delinquent behaviors have low education desire and
think that their teachers hate them and don’t treat them fairly. But school and
social factor isn’t the only thing that leads to aggressive. • Risk factor and family environment associated with aggressive
• The more risk factors children face, they more they engage in aggressive
• Changing the source of immigration
• Increasing linguistic diversity
• Growing number of aboriginal children
• Survival of lowbirth weight babes
• High number of children with special needs
• Diversity in language
all of these factors poses a challenges to public school.
Onetenth of students receive some form of education because of learning
disabilities, emotional or behavior problems. Children who live in lowincome
families are more likely to receive special education
(24%) of children who get special education have a parent who didn’t finish
high school and they are more likely to be boys than girls.
Aboriginal and first nation learner
People of aboriginal ancestry make up 4.4 of Canadian population and the
birth rate is increasing. The fist nation population in Canada is young growing.
And moving forward band- centered education.
The number of students studying in band- operated elementary and high
school is increasing ( 61%)
(39%) of the children are enrolled in public schools.
the decline in attendance at federal and provincial schools signals a change in
the role of the band in first nation education. While this trend is positive in
terms of band self- determination and identity.
Graduation rate for aboriginal and first nations are well below levels for the
rest of Canada. Provincial public schools are much less successful than their
non- aboriginal classmates.
One of the factors that may account for the low is the mismatch between the
world views of aboriginal students and the