Reading 3.docx

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2700A/B
Treena Orchard

Reading #3 ­ Childhood Part I­ the normative model: October 8, 2013 Pages ­ Berk, 2008: 168­175, 178­182, 200­208, 211­219 Influences on physical growth and health  Heredity and Hormones   Rate of growth related their heredity  Genes influence growth by controlling the bodies production of hormones  Pituitary gland: at the base of the brain, played critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth  Growth hormone: necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system  Child lacking GH will only reach a height of 4 feet; however injections of GH catch up to normal growth rate  Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH): prompts the thyroid gland in the neck to release thyroxin which is necessary for brain development, and for GH to have its full impact on the body – deficiency of thyroxin, must receive at once or will be mentally retarded Nutrition  Picky eaters  Preschoolers appetite decline because their growth slows down  Preschoolers compensate by not eating a lot at one meal and eating more at another  Repeated exposure to a new food enhances acceptance of the food  Bribes cause children to like the healthy foods less and the treats more  Children in NA & developing countries lack access to sufficient high-quality food Infectious disease  Children poorly fed, disease interacts with malnutrition in a vicious spiral, with potentially severe consequences Infectious disease and malnutrition   Poor diet depresses the body’s immune system, making the child more susceptible to disease  Total child deaths in the world – 98% in developing world and 70% due to infectious disease  Illness reduces appetite and limits the body’s ability to absorb foods especially in children with intestinal infections  Oral rehydration therapy: sick kids are given a solution of glucose, salt, and water that quickly replaces fluids the body loses Immunizations  Among American preschoolers 24% lack essential immunizations a rate that rises to 40% for poverty-stricken children who do not receive full protection until age 5 or 6  Parents with stressful daily lives often fail to schedule vaccination appointments. Misconceptions about vaccine safety also contribute Child injuries  Leading cause of childhood mortality in industrialized countries  40% of childhood deaths and 70% of adolescent deaths result from injuries Factors related to childhood injuries  These injuries occur in a complex ecological system of individual, family, community, and societal influences – and we can do something about them  Boys 1.5 times more likely to be injured  Temperamental characteristics also puts kids at a higher risk  Poverty and low parental education also strongly associated with injury  Injury rates high in US and CAN, b/c of extensive poverty, shortages of high quality child care Motor development  Gross motor development   Streamlined and less top heavy, their center of gravity shifts downward  As a result, balance improves greatly, paving the way for new gross motor skills  Age 2: preschoolers gairs become smooth and rhythmic- secure enough that soon they leave the ground by running then, jumping, hopping, galloping and skipping  Become steadier on their feet, arms and torso free to experiment, throwing and catching balls, steering tricycles, and swinging on horizontal bars and rings.  Then upper and lower body skills combine into more refined actions  Preschool years- all skills are performed with greater speed and endurance Fine motor development   As control of hands and fingers improves, young children put puzzles together, build with small blocks, cut and paste and improve in self help skills- dressing and undressing, using a fork adeptly, and cutting food with a knife. Fine motor progress is also apparent in drawings and first efforts Drawing   Drawing progresses through the following sequences: 1) Scribblies – one 18 month old – made her crayon hop and as it produced a serious of dots explained rabbit goes hop hop 2) First representation forms – age 3, scribbles start to become pictures • Major milestone in drawing occurs when children use lines to represent the boundaries of objects • Draw first picture of a person 3) More realistic drawings: more realism in drawing occurs gradually. 5&6 year olds create more complex drawings, contain more conventional human and animal figures, with head and body differentiated Early printing  At first don’t distinguish writing from drawing  Around age 4, writing shows some distinctive features of print, such as separate forms arranged in a line on a page Individual differences in motor skills   A child with a tall, muscular body tends to move more quickly  Boys are ahead of girls in skills and emphasize force and power  Age 5 boys can jump slightly farther run faster,  Girls, have an edge in fine motor skills and in certain gross motor skills that require a combination of good balance and foot movement  Boys greater muscle mass and slightly longer forearms contribute to their skills advantages  Girls, greater overall physical maturity is partly responsible for their better balance and precision of movement  Fathers are more likely to catch with their son than their daughters Cognitive development  Piaget’s theory: The preoperational stage  Preoperational Stage: spans the years 2-7 the most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in representational, or symbolic, activity Mental Representation   Piaget did not regard it as primary ingredient in childhood.  Sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience, which children then label with words Make believe play  Piaget believed that through pretending, young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes.  Drawing on his ideas, investigators have traced changes in preschoolers’ make-believe Development of make­believe  Play detaches from the real life conditions associated with it, in early pretending, toddlers use only realistic objects a toy telephone to talk into  After age 2, children pretend with less realistic toys – block might stand for a telephone receiver. Gradually, can flexibly imagine objects and events without any support from the real world  Play becomes self- centered – direct pretend actions toward other objects  Play includes more complex combinations of schemes: scoiodramatic play: make believe with others, that is under way by age 2 ½ and increases rapidly during the next few years Symbol­ real world relations     Each symbol corresponds to a specific state of affairs in everyday life  Dual representation: viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol  2 year olds cannot use an object with an obvious use (cup) to stand for another object (hat) likewise 2-year olds do no yet grasp that a drawing also represents real world objects Limitations of preoperational thought Egocentrism   Egocentrism: failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoint of others from one’s own  Focus on their own points of and simply assume that others perceive and think and feel the same way  Animistic thinking: the believe that inanimate objects have life like qualities such as thoughts, wishes and feelings Inability to conserve   Conservation: idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes  Centration: they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features  Irreversibility: an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point  Lack of hierarchical classifications: the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences Appearance vs. reality   Appearance-reality distinction involves attainment discussed earlier – dual representation – the realization that an object can be one thing a candle, while
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