Berk pp. 283-299

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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 2711A/B
Professor
Treena Orchard

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HS 2700A November 9, 2009 Readings - Notes Berk pp. 283-299 adolescence - the transition between childhood and adulthood puberty happens during adolescence - there is a biological and social explanation Hall described adolescence a period being very turbulent Anna Freud (daughter) resembled adolescence as biologically based, universal developmental disturbance psychological disturbances rises only slightly from childhood to adolescence Margaret Mead - studied adolescence in Samoa they had a relaxed culture and relaxed social relationships, openness towards sexuality therefore, adolescence was the best time for a Samoan girl/boy Mead looked at it as if social experiences were entirely responsible for adolescence Today, biological, social, and psychological development contribute to our adolescence biological changes are universal and it happens to all people demands and pressures of adolescence depends on each culture some cultures transition from childhood to full assumption of adult roles in industrialized countries, young people face those adolescent years where they depend on their parents and postponement of sexual gratication Puberty: The Physical Transition to Adulthood girls reach puberty 2 years earlier than boys Hormonal Changes complex hormonal changes occur at around age 8 or 9 secretion of Growth Hormone (GH) and Thyroxine increase gains in body size and attainment of skeletal maturity estrogen and androgens (testosterone) are both sex hormones that are BOTH present in males and females (just have different amounts for each sex) testosterone leads to muscle growth, facial hair, and other male characteristics the boys testes also secrets a very small amount of estrogen in both sexes, estrogen increases the secretion of GH androgens stimulate gains in bone density estrogen contributes to the growth of female body parts and the menstrual cycle adrenal androgens: secrete hormones that inuence girls growth spurt and pubic hair boys are impacted on mainly the androgens and estrogen released from the testes. Body Growth growth spurt: rst outward sign of puberty; the rapid gain of height and weight girls: around 10 yrs old and boys: around 12.5 yrs old growth in body size is nished for girls around 16 yrs old and nished for boys around 17.5 yrs old adolescence adds about 10-11 inches in height and 50-75 pounds of weight Body Proportions limbs accelerate rst, but then during puberty, the torso accelerates boys shoulders broaden and girls hips widen in the end, boys legs are much longer because they had 2 extra years of pre-adolescent growth Muscle-Fat Makeup and Other Internal Changes girls start to accumulate fat around the age of 8 but accelerates from 11-16 yrs old fat decreases in adolescent boys both sexes gain muscle, but there is a bigger increase with boys boys develop larger hearts, lungs, and skeletal muscles, therefore, the number of red blood cells increase as well for boys Motor Development and Physical Activity girls gains are slow and gradual and usually level off by 14 yrs old boys gains are dramatic, and immediate in terms of speed, strength, and endurance boys: athletic competence is strongly related to peer admiration and self- esteem some boys become so obsessed that they take drugs like steroids 3% of North American high school students, mostly boys, report to be taking anabolic steroids teens who take steroids usually have lots of acne, mood swings, lots of body hair, high blood pressure, aggressive behaviour, and damage to liver and circulatory system, and reproductive organs sports not only improve motor performance, but they also improve cognitive and social development in highschool, only 65% of Canadian students are enrolled in PE classes Sexual Maturation primary sexual characteristics: growth of penis, ovaries, vagina, testes, etc secondary sexual characteristics: breast development, more pubic hair Sexual Maturation in Girls: begins with budding of the breasts and growth spurt menarche - rst menstruation, happens at around 12.5 yrs old breast and pubic hair growth are completed Sexual Maturation in Boys: rst sign is the enlargement of the testes changes in texture and colour of the scrotum pubic hair emerges and then penis begins to enlarge growth spurt occurs much later for boys (compared to girls) facial and body hair, deepening of the voice while penis is enlarging, prostate gland and seminal vesicles enlarge spermarche - rst ejaculation at around 13.5 yrs old Individual Differences in Pubertal Growth heredity plays a role in puberty and when it occurs identical twins usually reach menarche within a month or two apart from each other, and fraternal twins usually menarche within 12 months apart from each other. nutrition and exercise also contribute to puberty sharp rise in body weight and fat may trigger sexual maturation fat cells release leptin - a protein that signals to the brain that girls energy stores are sufcient for puberty girls who are obese and overweight reach puberty earlier and in contrast, girls who train and are very athletic reach puberty later in third world countries with poverty and malnutrition, puberty is reached much later (14-16 yrs old) girls exposed to family conict tend to reach menarche earlier, as opposed to those with warm family ties. secular trend - generational change ; in pubertal timing lends added support to the role of physical well-being in pubertal development age of menarche steadily declined over the years (better sanitation, nutrition, etc) consequence: girls who reach puberty earlier will have to face unfavourable peer involvements, including sexual activity Brain Development growth and stimulation of myelinated nerve bers accelerate connections in the brain during puberty, neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters (thus, adolescents react more strongly to stressful events and experience more pleasurable stimuli more intensely) they are more susceptible to drug use, eating disorders, depression, and emotional pain revisions occur in the brain where it controls sleep, that is why adolescents go to bed much later than usual, but still need the same amount of sleep as children (about 9 hrs) The Psychological Impact of Pubertal Events generations ago, menarche was considered to be traumatic it is important to receive prior warning, and mothers are usually the ones who discuss about menarche to their daughters a fathers involvement reects a family atmosphere that is highly accepting of physical and sexual matters most boys know about spermarche ahead of time, but no one spoke to them about it. boys who are better prepared tend to act more positively mostly all girls tell different girls that they are menstruating, but boys do not share anything about ejaculating to their fellow peers boys get less social support than girls when undergoing puberty many tribal communities celebrate the onset of puberty through a initiation ceremony Pubertal Change, Emotion, and Social Behaviour
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