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Chapter 5

Nov 9th&12th - Chapter 5 Competition as a Motivator.docx

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Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose

Chapter 5 - Competition as a Motivator November 9th Definition: Competition is a strong motivational force imbedded in all sporting situations and in many recreational settings as well. However the coach or leader has very little control over it.  Descriptors: a situational process that is either zero sum or non-zero sum (reward structures)  And is either direct or indirect Cooperation  Work together with others to accomplish a task or reach a common goal o Competition and cooperation can be at work at the same time on any team or group (i.e. cooperate with teammates vs. opponent but compete with them for starting role or play time) o Competition= fairness vs. o De-competition = rival (pg.105 in text) The competitive process (Martens, 1975)  Each individual experiences the competitive process differently and it may vary from one situation to another within the same person  The competitive process is primarily focused on social evaluation (comparison with others or standards)  Linked stages often influenced by external feedback and rewards Objective competitive situation: Subjective Competitive Objective Competitive Situation Situation YOU Consequences Response  Internal things we bring with us to the competitive situation: a) Attitudes b) Personality dispositions  Need for achievement – seek out challenges where success is in doubt  Fear of failure c) Abilities  If unequal in ability the activity becomes co-cooperative learning until more equal in ability  Competitiveness is strongest if participants have high ability  If low in ability & made to compete, effort, performance and interest are reduced d) Motives  Early success increases competitive drive while early failure decreases it and either circumstance can influence the participants motives for future competition  Suggest more cooperative style games (rec. leagues) at younger ages  Wait till early teens for highly competitive games and teams  Insure some initial success if possible (i.e. scheduling, controlled scrimmages, exhibition games etc.) Cooperation:  Reduce competitiveness & experiences of failure in sport for younger children  Develop positive
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