Chapter 5 notes.docx

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B

Chapter 5: Orientation, Training, and Development Introduction - The ability for an organization to ensure its people continue to learn, grow, and develop has become critical to business success - Competencies: the core sets of knowledge and expertise that give them an edge over their competitors - Orientation, training, and development play a central role in enabling, nurturing, and strengthening the human capital in the organization - Orientation: formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs, and their work unit and embedding organizational values, and abilities and accepted behaviors - Training: the acquisition of skills, behaviors, and abilities to perform current work - Development: the acquisition of skills, behaviors, and abilities to perform future work or to solve an organizational problem Approach to Orientation, Training, and Development - The primary goal to orientation, training, and development is to contribute to the organizations overall goals - Systems approach to training: (1) needs assessment, (2) program design, (3) training delivery, and (4) evaluation of training The Scope of Orientation, Training, and Development - Learning: refers to an ongoing change in behavior and thinking – which is ultimately the goal of training and development Investments in Training - Training can improve employee engagement, which in turn can reduce turnover - For training to be effective, it is important that employers provide strong support - Hay Group Study: in recessionary times it is even more important to provide growth and development opportunities for employees Systematic Orientation, Training, and Development Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Analysis - Managers and HR professionals should stay alert to the kinds of training that are needed, where they are needed, who needs them, and which methods will best deliver increased training abilities to employees - Training is most likely needed when: workers consistently fail to achieve productivity objectives and if organizations receive an excessive number of customer complaints - The needs assessment can occur at the organizational level (examining the environment and strategy of the company to see where training emphasis ought to occur); the task level (reviewing the activities of the work to determine the competencies needed); and the person level (reviewing which employees need training) Phase 2: Designing the Training Program - Experts believe that training design should focus on at least four related issues, (1) instructional objectives, (2) trainee readiness and motivation, (3) principles of learning, and (4) characteristics of instructors Instructional Objectives - Instructional Objectives: desired outcomes of a training program Trainee Readiness and Motivation - Trainee Readiness: the consideration of a trainee’s maturity and experience when assessing him or her - Prospective trainees should be screened to determine that they have the background knowledge and the skills necessary to absorb what will be presented to them - The other precondition for learning its trainee motivation - 6 external strategies are essential: (relating to managers creating a training environment)  Use positive reinforcement  Eliminate threats and punishment  Be flexible  Have participants set personal goals  Design interesting instruction  Break down physical and psychological obstacle to learning Principles of Learning - Ultimately training has to build a bridge between employees and the organization, one important step in this transition is giving full consideration to the psychological principles of learning, that is, the characteristics of training programs that help employees grasp new material, make sense of it in their own lives, and transfer it back to the job Goal Setting: it is important that the goals and objectives for the training are clear Individual Differences: people learn at different rates and different ways Active Practice and Repetition: trainees should be given frequent opportunity to practice their job tasks in the way that they will ultimately be expected to perform them Whole-Versus-Part Learning: most jobs and tasks can be broken down into parts that lend themselves to further analysis Massed-Versus-Distributed Learning: the amount of time devoted to practice in one session, the spacing out of training will result in faster learning and longer retention Feedback and Reinforcement: feedback can come from self-monitoring, trainers, or fellow trainees. Feedback serves two related purposes: (1) knowledge of results, and (2) motivation Meaningfulness of Presentation: the material to be learned must be presented in as meaningful a manner as possible so that the trainees can connect the training with things that are already familiar to them Modeling: we learn by watching. Behavior Modification: technique that if behavior is rewarded it will be exhibited more frequently in the future Characteristics of Trainers - Need to be knowledgeable about the subject, be well-prepared, have good communication skills, and be enthusiastic with a sense of humor Phase 3: Implementing the Training Program - A major consideration in choosing among various training methods is determining which ones are appropriate for the KSA’s to be learned Training and Development Methods On The Job Training (OTJ): method by which employers are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer  Most common method used  Most cost effective  Builds good relationship with new employees  Most poorly implemented method; (1) lack of well-structured training environment, (2) poor training skills of managers, and (3) the absence of well-defined job performance criteria Apprenticeship Training: system of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work Cooperative Training: training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal education Internship Programs: programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations Classroom Instruction: enables the max number of trainees to be handled by the min number of instructors (info can be presented in lectures, demonstrations, films) Self-Directed Learning: individuals work at their own pace at programmed instruction Audio-Visual: these methods are used to teach the skills and procedures required for a number of jobs Simulation: used when it is either impractical or unwise to train employees on the actual equipment used on the job E-Learning: takes place through electronic media On-The-Job Experiences: present managers with the opportunities to perform under pressure and to learn from their mistakes, methods include: a) Coaching- continuing flow of instructions, comments, and suggestions b) Mentoring- usually involves an informal relationship c) Understudy Assignments- groom an individual to take over a manager’s job by helping the individual gain experience d) Job Rotation- provides the broaden knowledge and understanding required to manage more effectively e) Lateral Transfer- involves horizontal movement through different departments, along with upward movement in the organization f) Special Projects and Junior Boards- provide an opportunity for individuals to become involved in the study of current organizational problems and in planning and decision making activities g) Action learning- gives managers release time to work full-time on projects with others in the organization h) Staff meetings- enable participants to become more familiar with problems and events occurring outside their immediate areas i) Planned career progressions- utilize all these different methods to provide employees with the training and development necessary to progress through jobs requiring higher levels of knowledge and/or skills Seminars and Conferences: are useful for bringing groups of people together for training and development Case Studies: use documented examples to help managers learn how to analyze and synthesize facts Management Games: are valuable for bringing a hypothetical situation to life and provide experience learning Role Playing: assuming the attitudes and behavior- that is, playing the role- of others, often a supervisor and a subordinate who are involved in a particular situation Phase 4: Evaluating the Training Program - Training should be evaluated to determine its effectiveness - The four basic methods to evaluate training are (1) reactions, (2) learning, (3) behavior, and (4) results Method 1: Reactions - Simpl
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