Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
Western (10,000)
2246E (30)
Chapter 16

Political Science 2246E Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Westminster System, Financial Statement, The Assets

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 2246E
Joseph Lyons

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Provincial and Local Public
o The Canadian federal government accounts for less than half of all
government spending in Canada
Canada is a remarkably decentralized federation
o The federal and provincial governments in Canada are all parliamentary
systems of the Westminster model
o In Canada, our arrangements for local governments have been much
more influenced by American practice than British
o In Canada, provincial and local institutions are quite different
o Provinces must also grapple with special purpose bodies (SPSs)
Issues entirely foreign to the kinds of organizational problems that
confront the federal government
o Local government include both municipalities and special-purpose bodies
o Sections 92 and 93 of the constitution act, 1867, formally outline most of
the constitutional responsibilities of Canadian provincial governments
o The constitution provides that, the lieutenant-governor, appointed on the
advice of the federal prime minister, acts in place of the monarch
This is the one aspect of a provincial government’s organization that
the provincial legislation cannot change
o Each province has a head of government known as the premier, who is
formally appointed by the lieutenant-governor
o In some provinces the premier is supported by a distinct department of
government with its own deputy minister; in others the premier is
supported only by a combination of personal political staff and public
servants working in direct support of the cabinet
o The premier is clearly in charge
He or she appoints all cabinet ministers and deputy ministers
Most cabinet ministers appointed by the premier are the political
heads of ministries of government
o Every province has a ministry concerned with raising sufficient revenue
from taxes to cover provincial expenses
It is called the the ministry of finance or the provincial treasury
The constitution prohibits provinces from levying ‘indirect’ taxes
This means that provincial legislatures may not approve laws
purporting to establish customs or excise duties that are
included in the cost of the products or services being taxed
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o All provinces also have a ministry responsible for ensuring that people
charged with violating the law are prosecuted by crown attorneys in the
It is called the ministry of justice or ministry of the attorney general
o Provincial ministries in charge of municipal affairs
Their main task is to implement the laws concerning the
establishment and operation of municipal governments and to
monitor their financial management
Municipal affairs ministries are left to regulate the municipal
electoral process, conflict-of-interest rules, record-keeping and
financial procedures
o all provinces have ministries in charge of operating the legal regime that
governs the relationship between employers and employees
they are named ministries of labour, human resources or
o all provinces have ministries concerned with transportation, education,
health, income maintenance programs, ect.
o in the early 20th century, Canadian provinces became involved in the
generation, distribution and sale of electricity
o the standard mechanism was a crown corporation;
an organization structured in many ways like a private corporation
except that the provincial government owns all the shares
o in some provinces, provincial crown corporations also are in the water
o the most ubiquitous provincial crown corporations in Canada involve
liquor, since the rise of the temperance movement
provinces have been monopolizing the retailing of wine and spirits
as societal values changed, the mission of provincial liquor
operations changed from the suppression of demand to the
maximization of profit
o non-profit organizations are concerned with activities that are not always
suitable for full-cost recovery from the people who apparently benefit
from them
o Canadian universities are similar in their organizational structure and
None of their assets are directly owned by nor is their financial
reporting integrated with, their provincial governments; and their
employees are not part of their province’s civil service
All Canadian universities receive ongoing provincial government
operating funds, usually according to a formula that also regulates
tuition fees
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