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Chapter 2

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Inter-Rater Reliability

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Derek Quinlan

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Psychology Chapter 1 & 2
Chapter 2: Reading and Evaluating Scientific Research
2.1: Principles of Scientific Research
Validity: refers to the degree to which an instrument or procedure actually
measures what it claims to measure.
A measure demonstrates reliability: when it provides consistent and stable
answers across multiple observations and points in time.
There are a number of different types of reliability that affect psychological
Test-retest reliability: examines whether scores on a given measure of
behaviour are consistent across test sessions.
Alternative-forms reliability: this form of reliability exams whether
different forms of the same test produce the same results.
o if you give the same person the same test over and over, it’s possible
they are improving simply due to practice
Third type of reliability takes place when observers have to score or rate a
behaviour or response
The third type of reliability takes place when observers have to score or rate
behaviour or response
Having more than one rater allows you to have inter-rater reliability:
meaning that the raters agree on the measurements that were taken
Reliability and validity are essential components of scientific research
It is usually very important that your results are not limited to a small group
of people in a single laboratory
Generalizability of Results
Generalizability: refers to the degree to which one set of results can be
applied to other situations, individuals, or events.
By examining and reporting an average effect for that group, psychologists
can get a better sense of how individuals are likely to behave
Best to study an entire population
Population: the group that researchers want to generalize about
Sample: a select group of population members
Random sample: a sampling technique in which every individual of a
population has an equal chance of being included
Convenience sample: samples of individuals who are the most readily
Research should ideally have high ecological validity:
o Meaning that the results of a laboratory study can be applied to or
repeated in the natural environment
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