Maintain rigorous standards for honesty & accuracy. Failures are searched for and studies closely. Over time, more is learned about processes under study. No rigorous standards for honesty & accuracy. Specific prediction about some phenomenon that often takes the form of an if-then statement. Formal statements that explain how and why certain events are related to one another. Any characteristic or factor that can vary. Defines variable in terms of specific procedures used to produce or measure it. How are you specifically going to define your variable. Incorporates existing facts/observations within a single framework. Theory: set of formal statements that explain how and why certain events are related to one another. Theory used to develop new hypotheses, which are then tested by conducting additional research and gathering evidence. Hindsight understanding arrive at explanations after-the-fact. Major limitation is due to various explanations for behaviour with no sure way to determine correct alternative. Understanding through prediction, control, and theory building.