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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2010A/B
Professor
Terry Biggs

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Description
Psych 2010A Chapter 9 - Semantic Organization • to retrieve related information from LTM, we must be able to organize our memory • much of this organization is semantic - relies heavily on the meaning of the information • an effective way to organize information is to form hierarchies. • two major classes of models are used: • one model assumes that people compare the features of two categories to determine their relationship • one model assumes that the relation between two categories is stored directly in memory in a semantic network - consists of concepts joined to other concepts by links that specify the relation between them. • spreading activation: the activation of a concept can lead to the activation of related concepts as the activation spreads along the paths of the network. Organization and Recall • hierarchical organization can also influence performance by facilitating the recall of semantic information • recall of hierarchical information • one advantage of a well-organized memory is that it helps us retrieve information in a systematic way. • effects of organization are not limited to hierarchical organization •Bower and colleagues presented people with associated words linked together - people recalled many more words than when the same words were randomly linked together •semantic organization of the material improved recall, even though the organization did not consist of a hierarchy. • hierarchical organization can also help people recall numerical information from STM as demonstrated by testing a single subject over a 1-year period •subjects ability to recall groups of digits didnʼt generalize to letters. • Building Semantic Networks • one way to organize information is to construct a semantic network - show how concepts are related to each other • nodes: the format for presenting concepts in a semantic network • links: the format to representing relations in a semantic network • students who constructed semantic networks of a material did better than the control group on short-answer and essay questions but did not do significantly better on the multiple-choice questions. • constructing semantic networks is a good method for organizing knowledge, as indicated by the resulting higher test scores on the open questions Verification of Semantic Statements • how effective organization, particularly hierarchical organization, increased the amount of information that we can retrieve from the LTM • hierarchical organization can also influence the time required to retrieve information • feature-comparison model: a model proposing that items are categorized by matching the itemʼs features to category features • hierarchical network model: a model proposing that items are categorized by using the hierarchical relations specified in a semantic network. • The Hierarchical Network Model • one advantage of this kind of network is that it provides an economical way to store information because the information does not have to be repeated at each of the three levels. • it is necessary to go to the appropriate level in the hierarchy before retrieving the features stored at that level. • made two primary assumptions: •it takes time to move from one level in the hierarchy to another and •that additional time is required if it is necessary to retrieve the features stored at one of the levels • the finding is consistent with the assumption that response time should increase if it is necessary to retrieve the features stored at one of the levels in the hierarchy. • Facilitation occurs when the retrieval of information is made easier because the previous question required retrieval of similar information. • does not account for the typicality effect - the fact that more typical members of categories are easier to classify than less typical ones. • model does not predict differences in response time • The Feature Comparison Model • model assumes that the meaning of words can be represented in memory by a list of features and that classifications are made by comparing features rather than by examining links in a network. • defining features: features that an entity must have to be a member of a category, whereas, • characteristic features: are usually possessed by category members but are not necessary. • has two stages: •first stage compares all the features of two concepts to determine how similar one concept is to the other •second stage is necessary when the degree of similarity is between the two extremes. • model predicts that the more typical members of a category should be classified more rapidly than the less typical members because evaluating the defining features during the second stage slows the classification • unlike the network model, this model provides an explanation of why some false statements are evaluated more quickly than others (i.e. “A bat is a bird”) • another advantage of this model is that it can account for the reversal of the category-size effect •category-size effect: refers to the fact that people are usually able to classify a member into a smaller category faster than int
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