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Stimulants.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2020A/B
Professor
Riley Hinson

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STIMULANTS   Number  of  naturally  occurring  plant  substances  that  have  psychomotor  stimulating   effects  (one  group  =  methylxantines:  caffine,  theophylline,  theobromine)       Ma  Huang   -­‐ Earliest  recognized  and  used  naturally  occurring  plant  psychostimulants  ma   huang  (Ephedra  sinica)     -­‐ Chinese  herb  that  comes  from  leafless,  desert  shrub  =  horsetail  plant     o In  Chinese  ma  =  pungent  /  huang  =  yellow  (taste  and  colour  of  plant)     -­‐ Use  has  been  documented  far  back  as  5100  years  ago   o Teas  made  with  ephedra  used  during  westward  expansion  to  US   § Mormon  tea  (used  by  Mormons)     § Whorehouse  tea  (thought  to  treat  syphilis  and  gonorrhea)     -­‐ Main  active  ingredient  is  sympathomimetic  ephedrine     o Plant  also  contains  pseudoephedrine     § fewer  adverse  effects  on  blood  pressure  than  ephedrine     -­‐ Found  in  “herbal  ecstacy”  (deliberately  misspelled)     o Sold  as  safe  alternative  to  ecstasy     o Now  banned     Ephedrine   -­‐ Isolated  by  German  chemist  in  1887     -­‐ In  1927  Gordon  Alles  developed  a  synthetic  form  of  ephedrine     o Named  it:  amphetamine     o Smith,  Kline,  and  French  marketed  amphetamine  under  the  name:   Benzedrine  in  1932   § Nonprescription  inhalant  for  asthma  sufferers     -­‐ Ephedrine  is  a  bronchodilator  still  occurs  in  over  the  counter  (OTC)   medications  for  asthma  and  nasal  decongestion     -­‐ Can  be  used  to  produce  methamphetamine     o Often  by  huge  quantities  of  nasal  decongestant  pills  in  order  to  have   the  ephedrine     o Merchants  required  to  report  large  scale  purchases     -­‐ Often  in  combination  with  caffeine     o Found  in  “natural”  weight  loss  and  energy  boosters   o Burns  fat  as  result  of  thermogenic  effect  (body  temperature   regulating)     o Hydroxycut,  Metabolife   -­‐ Ephedrine  banned  from  products  in  Canada  and  US       Khat  and  Cathinone     -­‐ From  the  Catha  edulis  plant  has  been  chronicled  in  Africa  since  at  least   1300’s     -­‐ Early  use  was  in  the  form  of  a  beverage  called  Abyssinian  tea   -­‐ Today  main  use  by  chewing  the  leaves     o Typically  takes  place  in  afternoon  or  evening  social  party     -­‐ Extensive  use  in  Ojibouti,  Ethiopia,  Kenya,  Somalia,  Yemen   o Yemen  estimated  90%  men  /  20%  female  chew  khat     o Nearly  half  cultivated  land  is  plant  khat  (high  income  for  growers)     o Purchase  of  khat  can  absorb  up  to  50%  of  family  income     -­‐ Chewing  characterized  by:     o Mild  mental  stimulation  and  psychomotor  excitation     o Feeling  of  contentment     o Suppression  of  fatigue,  need  for  sleep   o Anorexia     -­‐ Active  ingredient  =  cathinone     -­‐ Produces  psychological  dependence  (compulsive  desire  to  use  drug)     -­‐ Less  clear  evidence  for  physical  dependence     o Stop  use  symptoms:  cold  shivers,  nightmares,  insomnia   -­‐ Made  illegal  in  Canada  in  1997   o Up  until  then  regulated  under  Food  and  Drug  Act  and  could  be   imported  with  a  permit     o 2008  article  RCMP  indicated  khat  was  most  commonly  smuggled   illegal  drug  in  Canada     -­‐ Plant  legal  in  UK     -­‐ Estimated  7  tonnes  arrive  each  week     -­‐ Khat  bundle  –  sells  for  about  3  pounds   -­‐ Methcathinone  is  a  slightly  modified  version  of  the  active  ingredient     o Synthesized  in  Soviet  Union  around  1930     o Treat  depression  (history  of  abuse  since  then)     o Limited  appearance  in  North  American  street  drugs     § Street  name:  “cat”     o Causes  release  of  dopamine  in  VTA  producing  euphoric  effect     § Similar  effects  to  methamphetamine     § Abusers  will  go  on  binges  lasting  serveral  days  during  which   they  don’t  eat  or  sleep     • Administers  dose  every  30  minutes  ($20/use)     • Followed  by  crash     o Animals  will  self  administer  methcathinone   o Some  evidence  that  results  in  destruction  of  dopaminergic  neurons       Coca   -­‐ Leaves  of  coca  plant  most  important  for  CNS  stimulating  effect   -­‐ Indigenous  to  northern  part  of  South  America,  south  part  of  Central  America   -­‐ Grows  10  feet  +    /      Life  span  up  to  40  years     -­‐ History     o Use  dates  back  to  1000BC     o Clear  archeological  evidence  of  coca  use  dating  from  6  Century  BC     o Leaves  buried  with  dead  and  have  been  found  with  Andean  mummies   o Present  during  Inca  Empire  (1250-­‐1550)     § Wealth,  power,  religious  influence  (ruling  &  religious  class)     o Spanish  Explorers  arrived  in  South  America  1550     § Chewing  widespread  among  native  population     § Initially  Spanish  tried  to  suppress  use  of  coca  because  use   viewed  as  pagan  ritual     • Felt  that  it  brought  native  peoples  together  when   conquers  wanted  to  dissolve   • Realized  people  could  work  longer  and  have  less  need   for  food  when  chewed  coca   -­‐ Coca  leaf  chewing  involves  placing  a  wad  of  leaves  in  the  cheek  and  adding   some  alkaline  substance  (crushed  sea  shells)  to  increase  buccal  ph  and   facilitate  absorption  of  the  cocaine  base       o Method  of  administration  results  in  only  mild  mental  and  physical   stimulation       Cocaine   -­‐ Coca  leaves  taken  to  Europe  by  Spanish  explorers  at  the  beginning  of  the   1600’s     o Attracted  little  attention  b/c  Europeans  dislike  chewing     -­‐ Isolated  active  alkaloid  in  coca  leaf  in  1859  by  Albert  Niemann   o 2-­‐beta-­‐carbomethoxy-­‐3-­‐beta-­‐benzoxytropane   -­‐ Used  in  tonics  and  elixirs  (North  American  favoured)     -­‐ 1859  Paolo  Mantegazza  wrote  a  paper  “On  the  hygienic  and  medicinal   properties  of  coca  and  on  nervous  nourishment  in  general”     -­‐ Sigmund  Freud     o Often  included  small  packets  of  cocaine  in  letters  sent  to  fiancé  and   friends     o Suggested  useful  for  treating  addiction  to  morphine,  indigestion,   asthma,  syphilis,  and  thought  was  aphrodisiac     o Said  he  liked  the  taste  of  American  cocaine  better  than  German     o Eventually  turned  against  it     -­‐ Late  1800’s  cocaine  containing  products  were  most  popular  psychoactive   drug  (wines  and  drinks)     -­‐ Vin  Mariani  was  developed  in  1863  by  Angelo  Mariani     o Finest  French  wine  to  extract  cocaine  from  coca  leaves     o Cocaine  content  estimated  about  7mg/ounce   o Advertised  primarily  as  ladies  tonic     o Endorsed  by  6  presidents  of  France,  president  of  Argentina,  3  popes,  2   US  presidents,  Prince  of  Wales,  czar  of  Russia,  Thomas  Edison,   surgeon  general  of  US     -­‐ John  Pemberton  imitated  drink  in  1885  =  French  Wine  Cola   -­‐ 1888  developed  another  cocaine  containing  beverage  that  had  soda  water   and  extract  of  the  kola  nut  instead  of  wine   o Became  known  as  Coca  Cola   o “The  intellectual  beverage  and  temperance  drink”     o useful  headache  remedy,  tonic  for  elderly,  melancholia     -­‐ 1906  removed  the  cocaine  from  coca  leaves  and  is  still  used  in  production   today     o US  government  permits  a  company  to  remove  the  cocaine  from  coca   leaves  so  that  it  can  be  used  for  flavouring   § Each  year:  (company  located  in  new  jersey)     • Removes  cocaine  from  175,000  kg  of  coca  leaves     • Cocaine  removed  about  1,750  kg  (production  of  medical   purposes)     • Street  value  approx.  $200  million     -­‐ Examples  of  cocaine  containing  substances  at  end  of  1800’s:     o Cola-­‐Bola  (3/4g  cocaine  per  oz)     o AZ-­‐MA-­‐SYDE  (4.5  g  cocaine  per  oz)     o Dr.  Tercher’s  (1/2  g  cocaine  per  oz)   o Ryno  Hay  Fever  Remedy  (supposedly  90%  pure  cocaine  powder)     -­‐ Early  1900’s  saw  dramatic  shift  in  drug  attitudes   -­‐ Particular  drugs  associated  with  certain  racial  minorities     -­‐ Introduced  that  government  legislation  requires  list  of  ingredients  on  patent   medicine     o Public  could  see  they  were  being  drugged  by  industry     -­‐ Cocaine  NOT  included  in  1908,  but  was  in  1911   -­‐ U.S.  Harrison  Narcotics  Act  passed  in  1914  listed  cocaine  as  a  narcotic     -­‐ Campaign  for  anti-­‐drug  worked  for  cocaine   o 1930  –  1945  U.S.  Federal  Bureau  of  Narcotics  could  claim  cocaine  was   no  longer  a  problem     -­‐ Increase  in  1950’s  and  choice  stimulant  by  1970  –  1980     o Traffickers  became  better  organized   o South  American  governments  became  more  lax  in  production     -­‐ Admissions  for  cocaine  abuse  showed  largest  increase  in  admissions  for  any   drug  during  each  year  (1975,  1980)     -­‐ Identified  as  the  “Cadillac”  of  drugs  used  by  rich  and  famous     -­‐ Mid  1800’s  –  new  form  of  cocaine  called  crack       Cocaine  Production   -­‐ Coca  leaves  placed  in  chemical  solvent  which  extracts  the  cocaine  from  the   coca  leaves   -­‐  Leaves  are  removed,  acid,  water,  and  kerosene  are  added  to  the  remaining   liquid     -­‐ Cocaine  trapped  by  kerosene  and  floats  to  top  of  liquid  since  kerosene  floats   on  water     -­‐ Kerosene  with  the  alkaloid  is  skimmed  off  when  dries  its  about  60%  pure   cocaine     -­‐ Called  coca  paste  (can  be  smoked)     -­‐ Takes  about  400  pounds  of  coca  leaves  to  make  1  pound  of  cocaine     -­‐ Paste  further  processed  by  treatment  with  oxidizing  agents  and  acids  to   produce  white  powder     o cocaine  hydrochloride  –  99%  pure   o injected  or  snorted     o does  not  volatize  at  low  temperatures  –  destroys  most  of  drug  when   trying  to  smoke       Crack     -­‐ Crack  is  derived  from  cocaine  hydrochloride  by  treating  with  alkaline   solution  (water/baking  soda)     o “frees  the  base”  from  the  salt     -­‐ Freebase  alkaloids  cocaine  volatizes  at  lower  temperatures  and  can  be   smoked     2  Reasons  why  Crack  is  very  popular  form  of  cocaine:     o it  can  be  smoked  producing  rapid  and  intense  effects  without  having   to  inject  the  drug     o it  can  be  marketed  in  a  very  affordable  way   § sold  as  rocks  (65-­‐110mg  about  75%  cocaine)  for  $3-­‐20     -­‐ Euphoria  produced  very  short  lived  (10  –  20  minutes)     o Users  must  constantly  administer  drug   -­‐ Gets  name  from  popping  noise  when  smoked     -­‐ Main  difference  between  crack  and  cocaine  hydrochloride  is  method  of   administration         Lifetime  use  of  Canadians  age  15  and  older  2004:     11%      (males  =  14%    /    females  =  7%)       Past  Year:     2%    (males  =  3%    /    females  =  1%)     Canadian  University  students  2004:     Lifetime:  7%      Past  Year:  2%      Lifetime:  too  small  for  reliable  estimate       Ontario  Student  Drug  Use  and  Health  Survey  2007:     5%  across  grade  7  -­‐12  no  difference  between  males  and  females     (this  represents  about  45  000  Ontario  High  school  students)         Modifying  Ephedrine:  The  Amphetamines     -­‐ Amphetamine  first  isolated  in  1887  in  search  for  natural  substitute  for   ephedrine     -­‐ Methamphetamine  synthesized  in  1919   -­‐ Neither  of  the  amphetamines  gained  much  attention  until  1930’s     o No  account  as  to  why  went  so  unnoticed     -­‐ Confirmed  that  amphetamine  produced  stimulation   o Lead  to  development  of  tablet  form  Dexedrine  in  1937     § Recommended  to  treat  narcolepsy  (sudden  sleeping),  weight   reduction,  ADD     -­‐ People  soon  to  realize  the  psychostimulating  effects     -­‐ Benzedrine  could  be  made  stronger  if  nasal  inhaler  was  cracked  open,  and   cloth  strip  containing  the  amphetamine  was  removed     o Either  chewed  or  brewed  in  tea  or  placed  on  cloth  in  bag  (like  solvent)   o No  prescription  necessary     o Abuse  became  quite  popular     § Alcohol  prohibition  was  ending  and  there  was  no  popular   stimulant  at  the  time     § University  students  and  long  haul  truck  drivers   § Widespread  in  Sweden  (on  sale  in  1938  “two  pills  beat  a   month’s  vacation)     § Military  issued  in  WWII  to  fight  combat  fatigue     § Adolf  Hitler  received  as  many  as  8  daily  injections  of   methamphetamine  near  end  of  WWII     § Huge  rise  in  Japan  (1950’s  1%  of  population  –  aprox  2million  –   were  addicted)     -­‐ Case:  two  year  period  an  individual  obtained  over  10  million  amphetamine   tablets  from  4  different  companies     -­‐ In  US  in  1970  over  10  billion  amphetamine  tablets  were  produced     o Enough  for  about  50  tablets  for  each  American     -­‐ 1965  prescription  required  to  obtain  tablets     -­‐ 1971  amphetamine  listed  under  controlled  substance  act       -­‐ 1960’s  in  Haight  Ashbury  San  Francisco  gave  rise  to  injected  amphetamine     -­‐ Physicians  began  describing  methamphetamine  to  treat  heroin  addiction     o Combination  of  heroin  +  amphetamine  (or  methamphetamine  or   cocaine)  =  mixture  known  as  “speedball”     -­‐ Injections  produce  a  “rush”  described  as  whole  body  orgasm     o Injected  use  has  been  associated  with  negative  use  and  less  popular   -­‐ Distribution  began  to  be  difficult  and  associated  with  hard  core  criminal   elements     o Particularly  motorcycle  gangs     -­‐ Chronic  use  =  leads  to  psychotic  behavior  and  aggression     -­‐ “speed  freak”  termed  to  describe  an  individual  that  exhibited  this  behavior       -­‐ Phenmetrazine  brief  popularity  in  early  1970’s     o Marketed  as  antiobesity  drug  Preludin     o Street  name:  “bam”     -­‐ Increase  population  of  amphetamines  in  1990’s     o Ease  of  supply  (cocaine  needs  to  be  smuggled)     § Large  urban  =  supplied  by  motorcycle  and  street  gangs   § Rural  areas  =  meth-­‐cookers  produced  in  bath  tub       Methamphetamine     -­‐ Can  be  oral  tablets,  injection  powder,  smoking  as  crystals  or  rocks     o When  injected  c
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