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Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 1: Abnormal behaviour in historical context Normal behaviour: cultural norm! People expects that others acting in a certain way. What’s psychologically normal? (DCM)  Majority  function autonomously  able to perceive reality  regulated moods  relate non-violently  not severely stressed (for the professor, the stress is a continuum and we are all navigate between the both side). Misconceptions about abnormal behaviour:  Bizarre  different in kind (we all a little bit depressed or anxious, but the kind is different)  former patients are unstable and dangerous (that’s not true! We have individuals with disorders who are no violent)  ashamed (most people are ashamed to have those disorders, and try to hide them)  one’s susceptibility  weak in character  mental illness is a hopeless situation (it’s not!) Toward a definition of abnormal behaviour  psychological dysfunction: breakdown in cognitive (= way we think, negative thoughts for example), emotional or behavioural functioning  distress or impairment: difficulty performing appropriate and expected roles (unable to go work for example), impairment is set in the context of a person’s background.  Atypical or unexpected cultural response: really bad if we misdiagnose someone, Abnormal behaviour defined  Psychological disorder and psychological abnormality are used interchangeably  Mental illness is a less preferred term  Psychopathology is the study of psychological disorders The diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-IV)  Widely accepted system for classifying psychological problems and disorders  DSM contains diagnostic criteria for behaviours that: - Fit a pattern - Cause dysfunction or subjective distress - Are present for a specified duration - And for behaviours that are not otherwise explainable Approaches to the scientific study of psychological disorders  Mental health professionals: - The Ph.D.S: clinical and counseling psychologists - The Psy.D.s: clinical and counseling “doctors of psychology” (no psy.D. programs current exist in Canada - In Canada, regulation of the profession is under the jurisdiction of the provinces and territories. (Ontario= be register, follow a program for a year and pass two exams=> pain in the ass) - M.D.’s: psychiatrists - M.S.W.’s: psychiatric and non-psychiatric social workers (involved in process such as talking to family) - MN/MSN’s: psychiatric nurses The scientist-practitioner:  Producers of research  Consumers of research  Evaluators of their work using empirical methods (effectiveness of a program for example/ clinically significant) Categories: Image in textbook: Studying psychological disorders, three majors components: focus on clinical description, causation (etiology), treatment and outcome Clinical description:  Begins with the presenting problem (like sore throat if it was a biological disease)  Description aims to: - Distinguish clinical significant dysfunction from common human experience, real psychological problem, needs to be treated.  Describe prevalence and incidence of disorders (look for the definition in the textbook)  Describe onset of disorders - Acute vs insidious onset  Describe course of disorders (the symptoms are better, after how much time?) - Episodic, time-limited or chronic course  Prognosis good vs guarded (pronostic bon ou reserve!) Causation, treatment, and outcomes  What factors contribute to the development of psychopathology?= study of etiology  How can we best improve the lives of people suffering from psychopathology? = study of treatment development - Includes pharmacologic, psychosocial and/or combined treatment  Have we alleviated (attenué) psychological suffering? - Study of treatment outcome The past historical conceptions of abnormal behaviour  Major psychological disorders have existed: - In all cultures - Across all time periods  The causes and treatment of abnormal behaviour varied widely - Across cultures - Across time periods  Three dominant traditions include: - Supernatural, biological (from Greece- separate mind/body), and psychological The past: abnormal behaviour and the supernatural tradition  deviant behaviour: believed to be caused by: - Demonic possession, witchcraft, sorcery - Mass hysteria (St. Vitus’ dance or Tartanism) - Movement of the moon and stars  both “outer force” views were popular during the middle ages  few believed that abnormality was an illness on par with physical disease: - treatments included exorcism, torture, beatings, and crude surgeries  Hippocrates: abnormal behaviour as a physical disease: - Hysteria “The wandering uterus”  Galen extends Hippocrates work: - Humoral theory of mental illness - Treatments remained crude o Heat, moisture, cold, bloodletting, induced vomiting  Galenic-Hippocratic tradition: - Foreshadowed modern views linking abnormality with brain cheminical imbalances The nineteenth century  General Paresis (syphilis) - Associated with several unusual psychological and behavioural symptoms - Pasteur discovered the cause – a bacterial microorganism - Led to penicillin as a successful treatment (so abnormal behaviour linked to a bacteria?? Wtf?) - Bolstered the view that mental illness = physical illness and should be treat
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