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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

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Psychology 2040A/B

Psych 2040A Chapter 11: Emotional Development, Temperament, and Attachment Displaying Emotions: The Development and Control of Emotions positive emotion is much easier to distinguish than negative emotion each facial expression becomes more recognizable with age Sequencing of Discrete Emotions basic emotion: set of emotions present at birth or emerging early in the 1st year of life (i.e. anger, sadness, joy, fear) biologically programmed; emerge at roughly the same age and in all cultures complex emotions: self-conscious or self-evaluative emotions that emerge in the second year and depend, in part, on cognitive development (usually appear in 2nd year of life) ie. shame, guilt, envy, pride embarrassment does not emerge until child learns to see themselves in a mirror or photograph (self-recognition) may also show evaluative embarrassment - stems from a negative evaluation of ones performance difference between shame and guilt guilt: failed our obligations to other people; may approach others for reparations of his act shame: more self-focused and not based on a concern for others big relationship between pride and success, shame + failure, and mothers reactions to these outcomes self-evaluative emotions are more inclined to come out when an adult is present Socialization of Emotions and Emotional Self-Regulation emotional display rules: culturally dened rules specifying which emotions should or should not be displayed in certain situations just like language, emotions should be acquired and used in order to get along with other people and maintain their approval babies are trained to display more positive than negative emotions emotions that are acceptable will vary with culture regulating emotions: strategies for managing emotions or adjusting emotional arousal for an appropriate level of intensity some strategies for reducing negative arousal are rocking themselves, chewing on objects, or moving away from things that upset them toddlers almost nd it impossible to regulate fear children frequently exposed to negative emotion often display high levels of negative emotionality that they have difculty regulating involves the ability to suppress, maintain, or intensify emotions acquiring Emotional Display Rules - when suppressing an emotion, we also replace it with age, children get better at hiding their true feelings mothers who emphasize more positive emotions had children who were better at masking feelings development of regulation continues until adolescence self-perception/ self-esteem has strong impact Recognizing and Interpreting Emotions Social Referencing social referencing: use of others emotions to infer meaning of an ambiguous situation around 7-10 months, infants are able to recognize emotions eventually, (2 years) they look to peers after they have appraised an object/ situation, to use others emotions to assess the accuracy of their own judgements Conversations about Emotions around 18-24 months, infants begin to talk about emotions the more children discuss, they better they are at interpreting empathy: ability to experience the same emotion one is experiencing (motivates to comfort others) Later Milestones in Emotional Understanding increasingly develop during childhood eventually recognize that a persons current mood may stem from not only current events, but also past. by 8 years: realize that a situation can elicit a wide range of emotions by 6-9 years: realize one can experience more than one emotion at a time ability to integrate different information (facial, behavioural, situational) to determine which emotion Emotions and Early Social Development emotions serve as a communicative function infant emotions are adaptive and promote social contact important for infant to detect emotions as it teachers them to behave in a variety of situations (social inferencing) a way of learning 3 components of emotional competence: (related to social competence) competent social expressivity - more positive than negative competent emotional knowledge competent emotional regulation Temperament and Development temperament: persons characteristic modes of responding emotionally and behaviourally to environmental events. believed to be the building blocks of adult personality 6 dimensions of infant temperament: fearful distress (a type of negative affect) irritable distress (a type of negative affect) positive affect activity level attention span/ persistence rhythmicity (bodily functions) variations in temperament can arise with biological maturation and experience (as frontal lobe matures) Hereditary and Environmental Inuences on Temperament Hereditary Inuences identical twins more similar than fraternal twins heritability coefcient are moderate at best throughout infancy Environmental Inuences home environments that siblings share inuences positive aspects of temperament (smiling, sociability, and soothability) negative temperamental attributes are shaped by non-shared environmental inuences (ones that siblings dont share) Cultural Inuences ie. those who are shy in North America experience social disadvantage ie. those who are shy and quiet in Asia (China) as perceived as socially mature. Stability of Temperament several components of temperament (such as irritability, activity level, sociability, and fearfulness) stay stable through life behavioural inhibition: temperamental attitude reecting ones tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar pe
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